Roguelike Dev FAQ

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     #                    Roguelike Dev FAQ                     ##
    #                         v. 0.0.2

By Damjan Jovanovic

Contents

GENERAL

What is rogue?

Rogue is a text-based game made in the 1970's that started it all. You explored a dungeon, gathering items, fighting monsters and getting stronger. There was no point to this all; but eventually they made it so the main quest was to find the Amulet of Yendor.

What separated rogue from most similar text-based games of its time was how it handled the output. Most adventure games described the environment (eg. "You are in a small room, with a passage out behind you"); rogue "drew" it using text. For instance, if you were standing in the room described above, this is how it would look (the "@" being you):

#####
#   ######
# @
#   ######
#   #
#####

Back at the time, PC's were virtually unheard of, and most computers were just dumb terminals connected to a mainframe, with no graphics. Drawing with text was a big novelty. Rogue was incredibly addictive in its time. It was eventually distributed with Unix.

What is a roguelike game?

This is a topic that has caused vehement debates in the rec.games.roguelike.development newsgroup. I will just explain it as simply as possible.

Let's see about the features of rogue:

  • Single player
  • Text based
  • Randomly generated dungeon levels
  • Turn based (ie. nothing happens until yyou press a key that does something)
  • The emphasis is on good gameplay rather than good graphics
  • Death is permanent. No loading saved games, no coming back to life. Once you die, you can only start from the beginning with a new character.

Firstly, you have to realise that games are not as easy to classify into genres as books or films are. There is a lot of games that don't belong into any one genre. Purists may argue that any game that is graphical and real-time (as opposed to turn-based) cannot be a roguelike, but not everyone agrees.

There is some overlap between roguelikes and role-playing games, adventure games, and so on.

Briefly then, "roguelike" is more of a feeling you get in a game rather than a set of criteria that have to be followed. Just to make things more confusing, here are some more things that can be found in modern roguelikes:

  • "Dungeons and dragons" style of skills
  • The maker is usually 1 person. The moree popular games have "dev teams" which work on them later.
  • Magic systems usually implemented
  • Usually set in fantasy middle ages (exceptions exist; sci-fi roguelikes do exist, see Theme)

What are the major roguelike games today?

ADOM

Website: http://www.adom.de/

ADOM is Thomas Biskup's one-man effort. Inspired by the D&D universe, ADOM is a fantasy romp with a quaintly humorous mood. It has a handmade overworld map called the Drakalor Chain. It's player's job to track down the source of Chaos overtaking the land. The closer the player gets to the source, the more tainted with Chaos he becomes.

Moria

"Mines of Moria" or just "Moria" is around. It is loosely set in Tokien's mines of Moria in "Lord of the Rings". It is not being developed any more; only "maintained".

Angband

Website: http://www.thangorodrim.org/

"Angband", is a newer roguelike based on Moria but even more loosely based on "Lord of the Rings". There is probably more variants to this one than to any other roguelike. The variants often used entirely different monsters and goals; not all of them involve Tolkien's works.

Nethack

Website: http://www.nethack.org/

NetHack is the modern roguelike which is the most direct descendant of the original Rogue. NetHack offers a very varied and sometimes whimsical playing experience; a favourite saying amongst players is that the Dev Team "have thought of everything". The focus of the game is relatively narrow - there's no town or wilderness, but just a single dungeon to get down to the bottom of and retrieve the Amulet of Yender from - however, individual levels are more varied than is typical of many roguelikes. The game is relatively short; it's possible to win in 8 hours of play if you put your mind to it - partly because the dungeon levels are static during the game, so unlike in other games you have little choice but to press on past explored levels deeper into the dungeon.

Dungeon Crawl

Website: http://www.dungeoncrawl.org/

What roguelikes games websites / newsgroups are there?

rec.games.roguelike.angband 
Discusses the roguelike game Angband and its variants.
rec.games.roguelike.nethack 
Discusses the roguelike game Nethack and its variants.
rec.games.roguelike.adom 
Discusses the roguelike game ADOM.
rec.games.roguelike.misc 
Discusses all roguelike games which don't have a newsgroup of their own yet.
rec.games.roguelike.development 
Discusses all topics which are related to the development of roguelike games.
rec.games.roguelike.announce 
A moderated group for announcements about roguelike games.
rec.games.roguelike.moria 
Discusses the roguelike game Moria, parent of Angband. This newsgroup is almost dead.
rec.games.roguelike.rogue 
Discusses the original roguelike, Rogue. This newsgroup is almost dead.
alt.games.omega 
Discusses the roguelike game Omega. Activity is rare. Development

discussion has a Yahoo group.

The best resource when it comes to roguelikes is the Roguelike News, which lists the games in development, development articles and news about the latest releases of major roguelikes. Unfortunately, the news site presumably shut down some time ago, but an alternative news is available (http://arns.freeservers.com/). An even better alternative with more development articles that are often updated is http://roguelikedevelopment.org/

GENERAL DEVELOPMENT QUESTIONS

How and by who are roguelike games generally made?

By a selection of people from all over the world, with too much free time on their hands =). People looking to learn a programming language, people who play games for a while and end up wanting to make it their way, people who want to make a game by themselves and have no artistic talent (if you're gonna use text at least =).

Usually by people learning computer programming; originally it was students of computer science or similar courses at college or university. Of couse, anyone can make them who wants to.

Which programming language are roguelikes generally made in?

Traditionally, C, because of its portability and because other programming languages weren't available at the time. Nowdays, a variety: Java, C++, Pascal, scripting languages etc. The best language for your roguelike is the one you know well.

Do you have to know programming to make your own roguelike?

Yes. There is no other way. Read books. Read articles and tutorials on the Internet. Look at lots of source code. Most of all, get yourself a compiler (most are available for free on the Internet) and practise. A lot.

From here on onwards, I will assume the reader of this FAQ is familiar and fairly proficient with computer programming and related concepts.

How do you make a variant to a roguelike?

Firstly, a variant is a roguelike game based on the source code of another roguelike game, with some changes.

Making a variant isn't easy for several reasons. Most roguelike sources I've looked at are VERY badly written; lots of poor programming techniques, hacks (more than 1600 in Angband), lack of comments, difficult to understand variable and function names, and so on. However, making a variant is much easier than starting from the beginning by yourself.

Firstly, make sure that it is allowed for the particular roguelike you are interested in, and that you aren't breaking any law by making this variant. You will most likely need to change the name of the game, to comment every source file you change with something like "Changed by on ", and log the changes you make to the history file.

Secondly, play the game A LOT. Decide what exactly you would like to change. Make a list of things to change. Then obtain a copy of the source code, and see which compilers will compile it. Get one of those. Compile the game without changing anything. If it doesn't compile, get it to compile before changing anything.

Then go throught the source files. Find the section you want to change. Make small changes first, then recompile and see what happens. Then make progressively bigger changes until you have what you wanted.

Variants usually never reach the fame and glory of the original game, but they are a good way to learn about how roguelikes work, and making them is usually easier and faster than starting from the beginning.

DESIGN ISSUES

Do you have to design a roguelike game before you program it?

Typically, roguelikes are written without much design or planning. Once the programming is complete, you decide what you can do with your program (eg. what items/monsters/spells you can support) and go ahead and make those. Some people believe this is still the way to do things.

Others believe differently. If you ever do a course in computer programming at school, college or university, the first thing they teach you is how to make an algorithm, how to plan your program, and how to design in before you start programming. For some kinds of commercial games, the designers make a 300 page design brief before the artists or the programmers even start work! Games that rely intensively on story usually have a complete play script written before the design brief. Of course, most roguelikes are free, and nowhere near this amount of work is invested in them, so this amount of design is ridiculous. But note that most roguelikes in development have a design document on their web pages.

I believe that planning is essential to any program, particularly a big one like a roguelike game. Before you start programming (at least, programming anything big or particular), make a list of things you want in the game. What kinds of items do you want? Spells? Monsters? How will your game world look? You don't have to plan the particulars like the colour of your orcs or the exact number of your spells; just look at general categories (eg. "some of my monsters will use spells on the player", "there will be plants growing in the wilderness that you can eat" and so on), and then decide how you are going to implement those things.

Why do many roguelikes later undergo a major rewrite?

  • Poor design. If you planned enough from the beginning, you would cater for everything, or at least most of the things, that you want to implement. Then you might only need a small rewrite.
  • Change of maintainer. Most popular roguelikes go through long chains of maintainers and dev teams. As soon as one guy gets the source code, the first thing he does is rewrite it so that it fits his ideas.
  • Poor programming techniques. I would say most of the rewrites are there to fix bugs. Some programming languages are better structured and better suited for use for long programs like roguelikes. It has been shown that when your code exceeds 100000 lines, the cost of maintaining it and debugging it exceeds the cost of programming new things. Object orientated programming, functions and splitting up into files help to reduce this problem.

What needs to be planned in advance?

  • The story, theme and setting. These determines practically everything.
  • The world. How it will look. How big it will be.
  • The terrain (eg. town, wilderness, dungeons, special places...)
  • The items. Major categories (eg. weapons, armour, potions, scrolls, food...). Leave detail (eg. how much the minor healing potion heals you by) for later. Think about how the items will be used and by who. Plan the basic rules (eg. you can only wield 2 weapons if you are a fighter, you need space for arrows if you equip a bow).
  • The magic system. Spell types. Who uses spells and when. How you learn spells. What they cost. Which classes can use them. How to implement permanent spells (eg. enchantments that last, like recharging a staff).
  • The systems. Battle system. Shopping system. Interaction with NPC's and monsters (maybe negotiating your way out of battles?). Level loading system. How to finish the game and what happens when you do.

What do people like about roguelikes?

Replayability. If the game is random enough, it is always fun to play and replay, because every time it is like a different game.

Freedom. There is a lot of it. You can kill just about anything. There is a lot of actions you can take. Many strategies.

Complexity. There is a lot of items, skills, classes, areas, spells.

Difficulty. While this can be off-putting, it gives you a tremendous sense of achievement to finish a roguelike or even to get far. You always have to be careful - it is easy to die, and all that playing time was for nothing.

How do you make people like your roguelike? Make it easy to get into and play; no reading through 50 page files to learn how to play. Keep the controls simple. The gameplay must be good. This generally distinguishes roguelikes from similar games - the emphasis is on the gameplay. Once your character dies, that's it - no coming back to life (or maybe you are reincarnated back without items and with reduced skills). This makes the game exciting when you are in danger. Keep it balanced. If it gets too difficult, people are discouraged. If it is too easy, there isn't much fun in it. Make a big world, with plenty of items and monsters so it is interesting to explore. Make an interesting story. And, most of all, don't make it like some or other roguelike that already exists. Use fresh, new ideas. Make it original and different.

How do you finish making your roguelike?

Basically, have a plan. Decide in which order to program it, and stick to the plan as much as possible. Keep it fun for yourself. If you get bored, work on another aspect. If you are bored on programming, work on the story, or on the graphics (if you use them). Take a break. It should be fun. If it isn't, ask yourself why, and do something about it. If you are stuck, get other people to help you.

OUTPUT AND REPRESENTATION

Do roguelikes have to be done in ASCII text?

That depends. Utumno is an Angband variant (according to the Angband variants FAQ, and I doubt the writers of it don't know what a roguelike is), and when people want to argue that things with graphics can't be roguelike, I always quote it as an example of a roguelike with graphics. Now compare Utumno and Diablo or Diablo 2. You will notice they are not that different (graphically).

So NO, roguelikes don't have to have to be in ASCII text. Why are 100% of them done that way (at least partly)?

  • Text is very portable.
  • It's traditional. Most people programming roguelikes come from a tradition of playing other roguelikes, and they are done the same way.
  • It's fast. A museum style computer can probably show text at the same speed as the latest one.
  • It's quick and easy to make. You don't have to have lots of artist friends to draw for you. You don't have to spend hours modelling.
  • Letters are very readable, even when they are small --- they were designed for just that. They are more readable than (most) graphical tiles, especially isometric ones. Real 3D models succesfully compete with letters, but only if the dungeon view can be freely rotated, tilted and zoomed.

How do you add graphics?

There is several different graphical systems you might consider.

The simplest and most often used method is with square tiles. Basically, instead of filling rows and columns of the screen with text, they are filled with small bitmap pictures. No animation is used, ie. when you hit a monster, you don't see a swinging sword. You can make an animation system, but it will get difficult. To properly animate a character, you need pictures of every single action from at least 4 different position (facing front, back, right and left) and the sizes of your picture / animation files get big very quickly. To produce smooth animations, you need even more pictures... It is obvious why Angband and Nethack use only front facing pictures with no animation.

The other method uses isometric tiles. These are like square tiles rotated 45 degrees, like they are seen from above and to the side. Just look at Utumno or Diablo to see what I mean. They are harder to program and to make, but they look better. Here you run into an even bigger problem if you want to implement animation - you really need 8 different direction (up, up-right, right, down-right, down, down-left, left and up-left) to face in, and you need every frame of every action in each of those directions. Nevertheless, Utumno, Falcon's eye and Diablo all use this.

Then there is 3D graphics...

How do you make a 3D roguelike?

There is only one game so far that uses this: Egoboo (http://egoboo.sourcefourge.net). Even Diablo and Diablo 2, although they look 3D, are really only 2D. All the monsters and characters for Diablo 2 were modelled in a 3D package, and snapshots were taken in different positions and at different times to create the animations. So good luck making one of the world's only 3D roguelikes.

But here is some ideas. A good cross-platform 3D library is OpenGL. You generally program it in C or C++. It is easy to learn, but requires hardware 3D acceleration for good performance. Good free modelling / animation software is difficult to come by. Try Blender and Anim8or.

In a way, designing monsters / characters in 3D is easier than in 2D, because you don't need to draw actions from all directions; only from one, then you can rotate them by any angle you like. Also, you don't need to draw every frame of an animation, just the keyframes, and your software calculates the rest.

However, the mathematics of 3D is difficult, and includes linear algebra, vectors, matrices, quarternions, geometry and trigonometry.

Which libraries let you position the cursor and change text colours?

Most programming languages come with a library of their own. In C and C++, you can use conio.h. This is DOS specific, however, and not portable to other systems. The "curses" libraries are a better choice.

For a windowed system, it gets a whole lot more complicated...

STORY AND SETTING

Which stories are possible for a roguelike?

Moria and Angband are (loosely) based on J.R.R. Tolkien's "Lord of the rings", but the except for a few characters, items and monster types taken from Tolkien's work, they implement very little story. Nethack hardly has any story (except for a one-liner you get at the beginning, like "You are looking for the Amulet of Yendor, a legendary artifact which grants immortality to the wearer").

In general, role playing games are the ones where story is important. For a roguelike, it is nice to have a story, and a good one will keep your player interested and provide more to the game, but it isn't the game's biggest component.

Good ideas are:

  • You are trapped in a virtual reality woorld, where the computer has gone mad, and is making monsters, which can kill you. The goal is to stay alive and find a way out.
  • You are in a post-apocalyptic future (nno guns; or very few of them with limited ammunition). There is a war between humans and robots. You are on the losing side...

What themes and settings are possible for a roguelike?

Ones that involve killing a great number of enemies.

Most roguelikes are set in the middle ages. There are ones in a science fiction setting in the future, but they aren't very popular.

Relatively unexplored themes are:

  • The Wild West
  • The Far East
  • The distant past (stone ages)
  • Alternative histories (eg. Atlantis)
  • The modern era
  • Science fiction settings

What is / how do I make a good atmosphere?

Atmosphere, (noun): the psychological environment, the feeling and tone created by something. The atmosphere in roguelikes varies. In Angband it is often dark and desparate - you're kilometres under the earth with a failing source of light, near death and with no way to escape your foes... In Nethack, it is quite challenging but somewhat humorous. The Diablo's are very dark and ominous - your cause is basically hopeless.

The best way to create an atmosphere is suitable music. Of course, I have yet to hear of a roguelike with music :-) (see DoomRL) (besides, music is difficult to port) so that's not an option. If your roguelike has graphics, use them. The story also goes a long way towards creating an atmosphere.

What are quests and how are they diffrent from other forms of plot?

A quest is a set of actions you have to do in order for something to happen. For instance, once you've completed the quest "kill Morgoth", you've finished Angband. Quests have some sort of reward, or story element with them.

What are the standard types of quests?

  • Assassination quests:
    • "Kill X"
    • "Capture X alive"
  • Searching quests:
    • "Find X"
    • "Get to X"
    • "Gather X of gold"
  • Competition quests:
    • Do any of the above queasts, but before your adversary (eg. get to a town before your adversary)
  • Story quests:
    • "Talk to X"
  • Any of the above, but they do something special (eg. there is a story associated with finding a special item)

How do I make good quests?

Make them relevant and provide a good reason to do them. Integrate them with the story. Give good rewards. Avoid repetition.

Example: avoid things like "kill 5 orcs". Why? Maybe it is relevant if you are in the assassin's guild, but if you're not? On the other hand, if the orcs robbed you and took 500 gold, it is far more relevant and you want

How do I make a good quest randomizer?

No idea. Someone help?

DUNGEON MECHANICS

How are dungeons represented?

This is a question worthy of a long article or maybe even a small book. Nevertheless, you can get the basics from this FAQ.

This FAQ only discusses traditional systems, ie. simple 2D tile-based dungeons. If you're making something different (eg. a 3D roguelike) you can still use this, though.

Firstly, dungeons are made of rows and columns of tiles. If you plan to have variable sized dungeons, use dynamic arrays instead of the usual static kind.

The tiles store:

  • The type of tile (eg. wall, grass, flooor, river)
  • The properties of the tile (Can you wallk through it? Is it illuminated? Has it been explored by the player?)
  • A list of items on the tile
  • The monster on the tile
  • Any other data (eg. a trap, a hole in tthe floor, stairs)

You should keep your tiles as small as possible. Angband has around 16 bytes per tile. Don't go much further than that; you'll see why in a moment.

How does this work?

The type of tile is a small variable (1 byte or less) that determines what the tile is. The type determines what is drawn - if you are on a river, you draw a blue letter or graphic. A fast way to do this is to store an array of the letter / colours / graphics of all the types, and just substitute the type into this array to determine what to draw.

The properties should be set per-bit; use bit fields or bit flags. How are properties used? Initially set the "explored" flag of all tiles to false, then when the tile is explored, set it to true. Only explored tiles are drawn. If the tile can be walked through (ie. it is not a wall or something), set the "passable" flag to true. When the player tries to walk somewhere, check the tile in that direction. If it is not "passable", don't allow the player to move there. This allows you to make illusionary walls if you want - ie. walls which aren't really there and you can walk through them. This should be 1 byte or less.

For the list of items, use a linked list. This allows many items to exist on the same tile. Store a pointer to the beginning of the list. The pointer takes up 4 bytes of memory.

For the monsters, it depends. If you have more than one monster per tile, you also need a linked list. Otherwise, just keep a pointer to the monster, or some way to quickly find the monster occupying the tile. This is vital in combat. A pointer takes up 4 bytes of memory.

What other data is needed? I would use another 1 byte to determine any special dungeon features the tile carries, such as traps, stairs, glyphs, chests and so on. Store all of these in an array, and substitute this value into the array to find what, if anything, is at the tile. If something is, take further actions...

So altogether, my system here uses 11 bytes. If I decided to make a dungeon that is 100 by 100 tiles big, I would need 100*100*11 = 110000 bytes of memory. This increase is quadratic as width and height increase, so be careful that you don't run out of memory. If you need to squeeze your tile size down further, use bit fields. They let you use less than 1 byte of memory for a variable.

How are dungeons generated?

In most games, levels or stages are designed and hard coded in advance. In a roguelike, you want as much randomness and variety as possible (you also want to make walkthroughs impossible to create :-), so you need to generate the dungeon randomly during gameplay.

There is many algorithms that will generate a dungeon. What they all basically do is fill a dungeon with rooms and passages, then add dungeon features like stairs, traps, doors and so on, then fill the dungeon with items and populate it with monsters.

This all sounds very simple, but if you've tried to program it you will know it is not.

The first thing you have to decide if you are going to recreate each level every time you visit it, or if you are going to store a level once it is generated and use it afterwords until the end of the game. The latter system is more realistic, but the former ensures you never run out of variety. Angband uses the former system. Nethack uses the latter. The latter system will be described in question 7.4.

How do you fill a dungeon with rooms and passages? There is all kinds of algorithms to do it. You can just start with a solid dungeon, then randomly "dig out" rectangles until you think it is enough. Of course, the results will be disappointing. You don't only need to generate the dungeon, you need to make it look good. The algorithm I just described will make one huge hole in the middle of the stage with rough edges, and some rooms which cannot be reached. Also, there is no limit to the size of the room, and no overlapping with other rooms is checked.

The improved "digging rectangle" algorithm would then look like this:

  1. Fill the dungeon with unpassable walls.
  2. Pick a random number for the number of rooms.
  3. Select a random location in the dungeon (x, y).
  4. Randomly select the room length (RoomLength).
  5. Randomly select the room height (RoomHeight).
  6. If the area of this room (calculated by RoomLength*RoomHeight) is greater than the maximum area for a room, go back to step 4.
  7. If the room cannot fit in the dungeon, or overlaps with other rooms, go back to step 3.
  8. Fill the rectangle given by (x, y) and (x + RoomLength, y + RoomHeight) with empty space.
  9. Go back to step 3 until all the rooms are created.
  10. Randomly select walls in 2 randomly selected rooms or passages.
  11. A pathfinding algorithm traces a path (passage) from one wall to the other. If no path exists, go back to step 10.
  12. Repeat from step 10 until every room is reachable.

This still has several errors. For instance, you might come into a situation where no further rooms can be added to your dungeon, and your dungeon generation procedure would go into an infinite loop. But the biggest problem is the speed - it can be very slow. While the dungeons it makes look good, they aren't very realistic - it isn't how anybody digs a dungeon. The pathfinding algorithm used to trace passages is slow and difficult to program. The biggest imperfection is that you don't know whether a room is reachable. There are ways (discussed later) to tell whether a room is reachable from elsewhere in the dungeon, but some algorithms always make rooms that are linked to the rest of the dungeon anyway, and this simplifies the whole thing.

How do they do it? Before a room is created, another room is randomly selected. A passage is drawn from that room, and then the room to create is added at the end of that passage. Mike Anderson's "Dungeon building algorithm" at the Roguelike News sites describes it quite well, the following is just a summary.

  1. Fill the dungeon with solid walls.
  2. Make a room in the dungeon.
  3. Randomly select a room (or passage) wall in the dungeon.
  4. Decide on whether to build a passage or a room.
  5. Check there is enough space to make the passage or room. If rooms are in the way, reduce the passage/room length so that it joins the room(s). If the passage/room runs out the dungeon, go back to step 3.
  6. Draw the passage/room (by filling it with empty space).
  7. Go back to step 3 until enough rooms/passages are drawn.

Passages that zig-zag or twist can simply be handled by selecting a wall at end of the passage when you reach the end of step 6, and going to step 5 and building a passage from that wall.

Good looking dungeons can also be made with a fractal algorithm. The fractal algorithm will produce any kind of pattern - for landscapes, forests, rivers, islands, coastlines or whatever else you plan to use. I don't recommend using fractals for dungeon generation, as they can make rooms that are unreachable from somewhere in the dungeon. But have a look at question 7.5 if you are interested.

How do you make dungeons with a theme?

How do you make sure all your rooms and passages are reachable?

Some algorithms always generate rooms and passages that are reachable from every other room and passage. If yours does not, you need a way to check this specifically. This is one.

The flood-fill algorithm is probably the best way to do it. It involves recursively calling a procedure that fills all empty tiles until it encounters a boundary (like a wall). When the flood-fill is complete, just check all the rooms for having a tile which is filled. Those that do not not are unreachable from the tile where you started the flood-fill (as well as from the rooms which are filled).

An example (C) is:

void FloodFill(int x, int y)
{
  if ((Dungeon[x][y].Content == FLOOR) && (Dungeon[x][y].Flags != 1))
    Dungeon[x][y].Flags = 1;
  else
    return;
  FloodFill(x+1, y);
  FloodFill(x-1, y);
  FloodFill(x, y+1);
  FloodFill(x, y-1);
}
bool AreAllRoomsFilled(void)
{
  for (int Count1 = 0; Count1 < DungeonWidth; Count1++)
    for (int Count2 = 0; Count2 < DungeonHeight, Count2++)
      if ((Dungeon[Count1][Count2].Content == FLOOR) && (Dungeon[Count1][Count2].Flags != 1))
        return false;
  return true;
}

Note that in some cases you might *want* a secret room or passage which is cut off from the rest of the dungeon, and to which you can only get through a special spell or complicated digging. If so, make provisions for it.

How do you make a town?

How do you make wilderness?

Fractals.

How do you make persistant dungeons / worlds?

A persistant dungeon, as mentioned earlier, is a dungeon that doesn't change. In Angband, every time you visit level 1 it will look completely different, which is unrealistic. In Nethack, the levels are stored, so level 1 always looks the same. That is persistance.

Obviously you have to save the levels to disk to ensure they don't change. But is it realistic for levels never to change at all? Sure, the walls should keep the same shape and the dungeon features should be in the same place, but should an item be where you left it months ago? Should all monsters "freeze up" and stay in exactly the same place, ready to do exactly what they were doing when you last visited that level? Should spells that affect the dungeon, eg. "destroy trap", still be in effect when you re-enter a level? You need to think carefully about what should be stored, and what should not.

To save a dungeon, all you do is create a file and then write to it, in order, everything that needs to be written to file. To load it, just read everything back from the file in the same order that it was written.

Of course, it isn't as straightforward as that. When you don't know how many structures (eg. items, monsters) will be written to the file, you should count them, then write the count before you write those structures. That way, when you read from the file, you just read the count, and so you know exactly how many structures you need to read from the file.

Pointers are another problem. When you read a structure containing pointers from file, you have to reassign new memory addresses to those pointers. In most computers, a program can be loaded into memory starting at any address, and so the memory addresses contained by your pointers will be wrong if your program is loaded at some other address. In fact, try to avoid writing any pointers to file - they waste disk space, and do nothing useful. Instead, write a data structure to file field by field instead of just writing it as a whole.

How do you store a really BIG world?

You might be encouraged to make a big world and make it "persistant" (ie. the levels don't change every time you visit them), but this takes up a lot of disk space. For instance, if each tile in your game is 20 bytes, and your dungeon is 256 by 256 tiles, and you have 100 dungeons, they will take up about 131 megabytes of disk space, items and monsters and other things excluded.

So how do you reduce the disk space taken up? Well, you can either compress your level files, or you can change the way levels are stored and generated.

Compressing your level files is pretty simple. There is many compression methods, but I will discuss one that reduces your file size considerably while at the same time not taking too long to do it. It's called RLE (Run Length Encoding), and it is used in many file types. What it basically is, is replacing a repeating sequence of data, with a count and one sample of the that data. For instance, the string "AAAAA" would be stored as "5A".

So to RLE compress a structure, count the number of repetitions and store it with whatever is repeated. Repeat until you've stored the entire structure. To decompress an RLE compressed file, simply read in the count, and set that many data structures to whatever comes after the count. Repeat until you've loaded the entire structure.

This method works best on:

  1. Large quantities
  2. Similar data

In other words, small quantities of data with lots of variety will not work well, and may even get bigger with RLE compression ("ABC" would be stored as "1A1B1C", which is double the size!).

Since most things in your roguelike should be stored as structures or classes, it might seem like you should compress / store structures as a whole. But there is usually a lot more differences between structures as a whole than there is between the fields those structures contain. In this case, it is better to RLE compress and store the fields separately. On the other hand, in some cases it is better to compress whole structures. You have to try it out and see what works better.

If there is a lot of similar data, with very few exceptions, leave out those exceptions and store them later with the location they should be at. For instance, if the string was "-*-------", you could just store "9- 2*", which means the string contains 9 minus signs, and the sign at the second position is a star. If you decide to use this, find some way to separate the exceptions from the rest of the data. In this case I used a space. You could just assume that the exceptions will be read in when the string has been filled completely. Remember to count the exception and write the count to the file before them so that you know how many to expect.

One last tip. You can use a bit-packed array, with 1's where there is unusual values, followed by those values, in order. If you want, you can compress those values or even the bit-packed array, but remember to decompress them somewhere before you try to decipher them.

The best data type to store the count is a 1 byte variable, but that can only store a maximum value of 255. So be careful that you don't go over that, because it will just cycle back to 0 and you will have a wrong count.

But while this method works well, there is an even better way to store levels, which takes up far less space. Firstly, how do you generate a level? You randomly select a number of things, like room and passage location and size, directions your passages run in, locations of your items and features and so on. Now the thing to remember is that there is no such thing as a random number in a computer. The only way you get a truly random number is through a radioactive decay counter, and no computer has one of those. Basically, what a computer does to get a random number is take a "seed" value, and calculate a sequence of numbers based on that seed. Given the same seed, a computer always produces the exact same sequence of "random" numbers. So if you knew the seed used to generate a dungeon level, and you reset the random number generator with the same seed and then ran the dungeon generation procedure, you will get the *exact* same dungeon.

In C, if you include stdlib.h in your program, you get the srand() procedure, which takes a number between 0 and 65535 (both included) to use as a random number seed, and the rand() procedure which gets a random number in the same range. If you need to select any seed, use a timer function to get a value in this range. So the stdlib.h library gives you 65536 unique "random" number sequences, which means you can use it to create 65536 unique dungeon levels. If your game only uses 100, chances are, your player will never recognise two dungeon levels being the same. Still, I would keep a list of seeds used to generate each of the levels so far and make sure the seed I use to generate a new level has not been used already. If you need a greater variety of levels, find another random number library that gives you more possibilities.

Now this really helps you reduce the size of your save file. The random number seed used by srand() can be stored in only 2 (!!!) bytes. If you decide to use this method, remember not to use random numbers seed for your monsters and items (ie. reset the random number generator after the dungeon layout is generated), because you don't want to have the exact same monsters in exact same places every time you walk into the level, and also to have the exactly same items in the exact same places.

Why would you NOT want to use this method? Well, while every random number seed has a unique sequence of numbers associated with it, the reverse is not true. This method therefore assumes that the dungeon layout hasn't changed, ie. that you haven't dug holes in the walls, that you haven't destroyed any doors or changed any features. If you have, the changes will be lost. You can, of course, save the changes to file with the random number seed, even compress the changes, but if a lot of changes are made, the file size can exceed that of a normally stored file.

There is a way to fix that too, of course. You can decide only to store a certain number of changes, and whatever changes occur after those, undo the changes that occur furthest back in time. For instance, if you store 10 changes, when you make the 11th change, the first change is undone (lost). One problem is that this can be exploited. For instance, if you dig though 10 walls, and you dig 1 wall further, the first wall will reappear and trap you. You can probably use this to trap monsters or do other things. This can be fixed by storing a lot of changes (like 100 or more) so the player will probably never encounter this situation. Even if you store 1000 changes, and each requires 20 bytes, you will use up about 20 kilobytes at most, which is still far smaller than 1.3 megabytes that you would have without any compression.

How do you deal with stuff happening far from the player?

That depends.

Monsters

Monsters on the same level as the player should be "processed" (ie. decide whether to move, attack, pick up items or whatever) each turn. You simply keep a list of all the monsters on the level, and every turn you go through the list and decide what should be done for each monster.

Monsters on different levels usually do nothing. When the level is loaded, you can decide to process the monsters say 50 times (without them being able to sense the player, or they will kill him!) just to make it realistic. This way, monsters will not end up in the same place and involved in the same actions they were in when the player last visited that level. You could also keep the levels above and below the level the player is on (as well as any other levels that can be reached through say teleport traps) in memory, and process the monsters on those levels. This makes it more realistic: the longer the player is not on a level, the greater the amount of changes made to that level and the more the monsters change / disperse.

The exact monster processing will be discussed later.

What is LOS, and how and why do you do it?

LOS (Line Of Sight) is a way to determine what is visible to the player / monster.

In most (all?) roguelikes, the dungeon starts in complete darkness. When you walk around, you reveal some of it. But you only see monsters that are illuminated by your light at a particular time. This illumination area is usually circular (or octagonal -- Angband). Also, the light scatters realistically - shadows form when there is something in the way, you can't see around corners, and so on. Another important point is that some light sources cover more area than others - a normal torch covers a circle with radius 1, the Phial of Galadriel has radius 3 and so on.

How do you determine what is visible? For a monster, you simply pass through the area and when something of interest is found, trace a line back to the monster. If there are obstacles along this line, the monster doesn't see it and so doesn't react. For a player, it gets more complicated.

The simplest and most inefficient algorithm traces out a circle of the desired radius (using trigonometric functions - sine and cosine) and draws rays of light from the player to the circumference. Initially the whole area is made dark, and when the rays are traced, everything up to and including an obstacle is illuminated, and everything after is ignored (because some other ray could be illuminating it). The problem is that you don't know how many points you have to evaluate to draw a good circle (for a radius 10 light, you need hundreds), and using sine and cosine is very slow.

Another way to do it is to draw a square on the dungeon tiles whose width and height are double the light radius, and which is centred on the player. Then trace rays of length radius from the player to each tile which makes up the square, treating intersections with objects as above.

Yet another method uses shadow casting.

How do you "trace rays"? Just draw a line, and pass along it. Bresenham's line algorithm is very good - it can handle vertical lines, and it uses no multiplication or division - only fast integer addition / subtraction.

A good way to optimise these algorithms is to use the fact that a circle is symmetrical about its horizontal and vertical diameter, as well as the 45 degree and 135 degree diameter. So you only need to evaluate (x;y) from 0 to 45 degrees, then trace rays to (x;y), (y;x), (-x;y), (y;-x), (x;-y), (-y;x), (-x;-y) and (-y;-x). This makes the algorithms about 8 times faster.

There is a problem with these algorithms, and that is that a corner tile at the end of a passage is never lit (unless you stand right next to it). It looks like this:

###
.@.#
###

when in roguelikes you usually see:

####
.@.#
####

Hacks can fix this pretty quickly. If the tiles next to the corner tile are all illuminated, illuminate the corner tile too.

How do you store the list of all the items in the game?

You should know what kinds of items you are going to have in the game. You should also have your magic system well planned, and any other systems involving items (battles, shopping, stealing) also well planned.

Decide on the exact categories of items, and the similarities and differences between them. Decide what each item category needs to contain. For instance, while most items should be able to carry enchanments, foods and potions should not (unless, of course, a potion works the same way as a spell does). Your weapons and armor should store info relevant to the battle system (like attack power, damage type, defensive rating and so on), but scrolls should not. I think a good way to represent all the different item categories is to use object orientated programming, because that allows inheritance, polymorphism and so on, which is very useful.

Now one way to store the item list is to just keep a huge list of all the items in the game, in some kind of array, and to represent an item, you just store a number, which is the position of that item in this array. While this system works well for some kinds of items where there is no difference between two items of the same kind, the problem arises when you want to store something individual about an item. For instance, you might want items to carry an enchantment that makes them do extra damage, or that heals you faster. You might want a damage system, where as you use your items, they take damage, and when that damage reaches zero, they fall apart and become unusable. In both these systems, the items have to carry individual enchantments and damage ratings. So you can't store such items in the array, you would have to store all the settings for each item with the item.

The best way to do it, then, is to split up your items into 2 categories. In the first category are items which carry no individual properties. These are simply represented by a number which is substituted into the item array to find out about them. In the second category are items which have some individual properties. They are represented by both a number which get substituted into the item array, and by the individual settings they carry.

Since you will most likely end up with different sizes for different item types, you can't use 1 massive array for all the items. You will most likely have to use an array for each item category. You store these arrays in a file, and read them in from the file when the game is started.

How do you store the items in the player's inventory?

The previous question discusses how to generally store the items. One more thing to remember is that if the player / monster is carrying more than one item that is the same (eg. 5 arrows), you should allow the items to stack. So you need one more structure per item, and that is the number (for the arrows, it would be 5). If you want to check total inventory weight, remember to multiply each item's weight by its number to get the correct weight, otherwise you will just get the weight of 1 item.

But now how do you store all those items in the player's inventory? You can use:

  1. A static array
  2. A dynamic array
  3. A linked list

A static array is simply array with a fixed number of elements. It is easy to read and write to a file, because it is one continuous structure and you always know how long it is. You only need to still store the number of items in the array so that you know where the stop reading the items back from file. It is also very easy to sort. The disadvantage is that memory is always wasted. If the array has 50 elements, and you only carry 5 items, 45 elements worth of memory is sitting there unused. Also, you can't carry more than 50 items, so you constantly have to check this when buying / picking up / doing anything that adds items to the inventory.

A dynamic array is an array that can be of any size, because it is can be created and destroyed at any point in your program (using "new" and "delete" in C++, and "malloc()" and "free()" in C). When you create it, you specify the size. Unfortunately, you can't change the size of the array when it is created. So when you decide to add or remove the item from the inventory, you need to create another array with the right number of elements, and then copy everything from the old array, and delete the old array. This is slow. Sorting a dynamic array and writing it to file is just as simple as sorting a static one, though.

A linked list is a more advanced programming structure. It consists of a bunch of "nodes" created dynamically (ie. whenever you like, not all at a specific time like with arrays), and each one containing a pointer to the next one in the list (and sometimes the previous) and containing data (like your item info). The cool thing about linked lists is that there can be as many as you like, they will never waste any memory, and adding and removing items is easy and quick. They can only be accessed sequentially, ie. you have to go through them in order from beginning to end. However, sorting linked lists, although harder to program, is even faster than sorting arrays, because you don't need to swap the actual data, only the pointers' memory addresses. Writing this to file is slightly harder, as you have to do it item by item, you can't just write the whole list at once, and you don't know how many items you've got (unless you keep count). Linked lists can be used for a whole lot of other things too. This is the recommended structure for those who know about it and how to use it. If you don't, it's quite difficult, learn pointers and dynamic memory allocation first.

How do you make randomly generated items?

  • Decide what percentage of items in the game should be random
  • Decide what categories of items should be randomly generated
  • Decide what things should be random in each category
  • Decide what the range for those random values should be
  • At the start of a game, generate the raandom items and put them in the big item array

Which kinds of monsters should I use in my roguelike?

It depends on the setting and story. Most roguelikes use monsters taken out of Tokien's work: orcs, trolls, wargs, hobbits, dwarves, elves, dragons and so on. Traditional creatures taken out of various mythologies and religions are also used: nagas, medusas, gorgons, angels, demons and so on. Some are taken out of "Dungeons and dragons", such as the infamous kobold. Plenty of animals are used: from the normal cave-dwelling creatures like bats and spiders, to the ridiculous lice and ants.

Make up your own if these are not enough.

How do you create a monster AI?

AI (artificial intelligence) is not so easy to create. There is several different techniques you might want to use.

State machines are probably the easiest way to do AI. Firstly, get a piece of paper. Then write a set of states (eg. attacking, walking somewhere, running away, stealing), circle those states, and draw arrows (with directions) from each state to every state you can get to from that state. These arrows are called transitions. Label each transition with the circumstances under which it occurs. An example:

     +-----------------+    +---------------+
     | player runs away|    | healthy again |
     |                 v    v               |
+-- ATTACK        APPROACH PLAYER       RUN AWAY
|    ^                 |                    ^
|    |  close enough   |                    |
|    +-----------------+   likely to die    |
+-------------------------------------------+

Of course, it would be a lot more complicated. There is far more decisions to be made, and there is more actions (one for each item / spell). Now how do you implement this? Instead of using the usual massive nested "if" or "switch" statement, you make a 2 dimensional array, with the number of states being its width and height. This is the state transition table.

            ATTACK        APPROACH              RUN
ATTACK                    Player runs away      Likely to die
APPROACH    Close enough                       
RUN                       Healthy again

You keep a variable with each monster that tells you which state it is in. This tells you about the row of the state transition table. You then go through that row, and run tests to see if the circumstances in it are fulfilled. If they are, pick the one with the highest priority, and switch to that state. For instance, you are in the "ATTACK" state. Look in the left-most column for "ATTACK" (it's at the top). Right, now look along the row. Under the first column ("ATTACK") there is a blank space, so there is nothing to check there. Under the "APPROACH" column there is "Player runs away". Say that is true - the player is leaving. Under the "RUN" column there is "Likely to die". Say that is also true - the monster is badly hurt. The monster's life takes priority over the player's pursuit, so the state machine switches to the "RUN" state (you could of course make the monster's life less important :-). Behavior is then based on the states. This is also where big "if" statements can come in. If you want to avoid them, use function pointers as well in your state transition table, and make a function for each action / state.

State machines are very good, and unlike a quick AI you make using hacks, they stand up well to difficult situations and don't require a lot of processing or calculation. They are used in many programming situtations, so it is worthwhile to learn them.

Other techniques, like neural networks are described in question 8.x.

How do you create a good monster AI?

The previous question describes how you make an AI. This one will discuss how to improve it and make it interesting.

Firstly, plan. Do you want some monsters to attack each other? Do you want to make some co-operate with the player? Do you want group tactics? Various strategies?

How do they find / follow the player?

Let's see. The player is always moving. The monster is always moving. The other monsters are always moving. Doors are opening and closing, new obstacles are coming around. This seemingly simple problem of "now the monster follows the player" is actually a real challenge.

Different roguelikes have tried different things. In Angband, the monsters sleep (do nothing) when they are created. When the player comes around making noise, they wake up. This way, far away monsters don't constantly have to look for the player. Also, monsters only move to attack you if they see you (I think), and if you temporarily disappear, they go to where they last saw you.

How do they move closer to you if they know where you are (ie. can see you)? If their X value on the map is smaller than yours, they take a step that increases their X value; if their X value is bigger than yours, they take a step that decreases it, and if it is the same, they don't take a step which changes the X value. The same thing happens with the Y value. The combination of X and Y changes makes the monsters walk the best possible way (ie. diagonally or in a straight line, depending on the situation). This, of couse, doesn't help when it comes to obstacles. How do you get around obstacles? Several ways will be discussed here.

I am going to assume the monsters want to find you, and you are far away. One way to do it is to tract you by scent. Every game turn, the player deposits some scent on the tile he is standing on. The smell spreads (by somehow averaging the scent value of a tile with all the surrounding tiles) and fades (a small value is subtracted from each tile's scent value every turn). When a monster picks up a scent, it finds the tile around it with the highest scent value, and goes there. If you don't put scent on tiles with obstacles, monsters will never find obstacles blocking their way to the player, because obstacles have a scent of zero. The problem with this method is that it is pretty slow. Averaging involves division, which is (together with multiplication) the slowest simple arithmetic operation a computer can do. But if you optimise it somehow, it could work well. If you make some monsters more sensitive to smell than others, it could work very well, and it prevents all the monsters in the stage from coming after you at the same time :-). Monsters should track by sight (described in the previous paragraph) when they finally see you.

Tracking by sound also works. For each action that makes a sound, calculate the amount of sound, and spread it like you would smell (except for that sound has no duration, so it only lasts for 1 turn and then disappears). Monsters go in the direction of the tiles with the highest amount of sound. Maybe every time they hear sound, they start listening better for new sounds, and becoming more aware of smells? What is nice about sound and smell is how you magic and items which change them bring in all kinds of new strategies (eg. an invisibility spell isn't enough any more, because some monsters can sniff you out and attack anyway).

The proper way to do pathfinding is through a pathfinding algorithm like A* or Djkstra. These will find the shortest path (if any) between two points on the map. You might want to use these for some special monsters that know the location of the player (through magic or something). The problem with pathfinding is that it is generally slow, and it is difficult to learn and program (unless you know a lot of Graph Theory). Also, since the player is moving, and monsters are moving, and new obstacles are coming around, you would have to trace a path every couple of turns to make sure it is still possible (no new obstacles). This is very computationally expensive, so like I said, it isn't good to use for every single monster, only for some. It can also be used for moving the player; in some games (a.k.a. Diablo/2), you click with the mouse where you want the player to go, and he walks there using the shortest path and avoiding obstacles and everything else in the way.

A quick algorithm and explanation of pathfinding (since I couldn't find any and had to learn the hard way): This is something like Djkstra's algorithm. What happens is there is 2 lists: OPEN and CLOSED. The OPEN list stores a list of tiles which are possible candidates for a shortest path, and the CLOSED list stores the tiles we've been through, so they aren't unnecessarily repeated. The "movement cost" is the number of steps the monster has to take to get to that tile, walking on the path associated with that tile. New tiles are only added to the OPEN list if they don't exist, and tiles only replace other tiles if they have shorter paths. Anyway, the algorithm is:

  1. Find the destination tile (where the player is).
  2. Put the starting tile (where the monster is) on the OPEN list. It's starting cost is zero.
  3. While the OPEN list is not empty, and a path isn't found:
    1. Get the tile from the OPEN list with the lowest movement cost. Let's call it the CURRENT tile.
    2. If this is the destination tile, the path has been found. Exit the loop now.
    3. Find the tiles to which you can immediately walk to from this tile. These would the the tiles around this tile, which don't contain obstacles. Call these tiles "successors".
    4. For each successor:
      1. Set the successor's parent to the CURRENT tile.
      2. Set the successor's movement cost to the parent's movement cost, plus 1 (for diagonal movements, add more if it takes longer to go diagonally in your game).
      3. If the successor doesn't exists on either the OPEN list or the CLOSED list, add it to the OPEN list. Otherwise, if the successor's movement cost is lower than the movement cost of the same tile on one of the lists, delete the occurences of the successor from the lists add the successor to the OPEN list Otherwise, if the successor's movement cost is higher than that of the same tile on one of the lists, get rid of the successor
    5. Delete the CURRENT tile from the OPEN list, and put it on the CLOSED list.
  4. If the while loop has been ended because the OPEN list is empty, there is no path.
  5. If this is not the case, the last tile pulled from the OPEN list, and its parents, describe the shortest path (in reverse order - ie. from the player to the monster - you should read the list of tiles back to front).

How do you add variety to your monsters?

A big problem with monsters in roguelikes is that they are just too predictable. You know one hit with a sword will kill every mouse, one arrow will kill every yeek, and it takes a lot from both weapons and spells to kill a dragon. Even though there is often lots of monsters, once you've seen each one, that's it, you've seen it all.

A number of different techniques therefore exist to make monsters more unique and add more variety to them. Making monsters carry items is one of them. So is a good monster AI. There is several more. Here I will discuss genetics and neural networks.

In real life, animals and people carry genes, which adds a lot of differences between them. Some are faster, some are smarter, some are healthier and so on. What happens over a period of time is that the fittest survive and the rest die out. So when your player walks into the dungeon and starts killing monsters, he will find they are not all the same, and they get stronger over time, because as the weaker die, the stronger live on to reproduce and have stronger children. How do you make monster genetics? Decide what the "genes" should be. Maybe extra health points. Resistances to various elements and spells. Stronger attack and defence. Intelligence and eventually the ability to use magic? Then decide what each gene does. For instance, each health gene affects health points by 5%. For each good health gene, the health points go up 5%, and with a bad health gene, they go down 5%. So if you gave an orc 4 health genes, and they all turned out "good", the orc would have 120% of its normal health points. If they all turned out "bad", he would only have 80%.

Now, using genetic algorithms, when you create a monster, randomly select 2 parents. Somehow combine the parent's genes (usually using random selection and averaging). If there isn't enough parents, randomly create genes. How does this help? Well, the orcs with 80% hit points will get killed more by the player, and so fewer will survive to have sickly children. The children will thus become healthier, because only healthy parents have survived to reproduce. As they grow healthier, they are more of challenge for the player.

Neural nets are a way for a computer to learn. They are a difficult and complicated topic, which is why they are rarely used in any games, but simple ones should be manageable with a little research. What basically happens is that a neural net takes a number of inputs, and produces a number of outputs. Unlike a program which you make, however, a neural net learns from experience and corrects its mistakes, so a good one should make a really challenging opponent.

The inputs to a monster neural net could be:

  • Current state of health (hit point perccentage)
  • Current opponent's state of health (proobably also a percentage)
  • Distance from opponent
  • Damage done by previous attack

The outputs:

  • Movement towards the opponent
  • Movement away from the opponent (runninng away :-)
  • Some or other attack
  • A spell

You train the net by comparing the damage done to the opponent, with the damage received from the opponent. With a little practise, the neural net would learn to run when it is near dead, to go closer to the opponent when it is far, to use attacks which do the most damage and so on. One thing to remember, is that if you plan to have neural nets for each creature, don't destroy the net when the creature dies. Then all the learning is lost. Rather use a net for all kinds of that creature (eg. a neural net for all orcs).

How do you make your battle system?

The heart of any roguelike is the battle system. What makes most roguelikes fun, is killing thousands of monsters. The better the battles, the better the game. So a good battle system is not only nice to have, it is essential.

Planning a battle system, however, is no easy job. Every single spell, every usable item, every monster type, and many many other things, can completely change the way battle works. For instance, say you have this spell called "haste" that makes the player take one extra action per turn. That's easy: one "if" statement checks if haste is active, and if so, the player takes another action. But now say you decide to change the haste spell so monsters can use it too. Now things can really complicated when you have multiple monsters and the player with "haste". Your entire battle system might have to change. So the point is, while you should have some idea of how a battle goes from the beginning, you should only program the battle system when the item, magic and monster lists are complete.

Basically, combat works like this. Everybody gets a certain number of turns, they do what they think will inflict the most damage on their opponent while minimising their own damage taken. Damage is inflicted with weapons, and it is reduced (or blocked entirely) with armour.

The point of combat is very simple. Kill as many opponents as possible while staying alive yourself. When do you die? Every roguelike (and most other games) I've seen use a "hit point" (or "health point") rating, abbreviated HP. You have a certain amount of HP, and a maximum. The maximum grows when you reach the next level, and the current HP grows when you rest/drink healing potions/use healing spells and so on. When your current HP is maxed out, you are completely healthy. When it drops to 0, you die. Damage reduces it by the amount of damage taken, and healing increases it by the amount of health points gained. How do you calculate this? Instead of the slow and problematic way of checking overflows like roguelikes usually do it, do this: When a hit occurs: If the damage is greater than or equal to the current HP, the HP drops to zero and you die. Otherwise subtract the damage from the current HP. When you are healed: If the health gained is greater than the difference between your maximum and your current HP, your current HP takes on the value of the maximum HP. Otherwise, you add the health gained to the current HP.

When you process you monsters, the monster AI decides what action to take.

How do you represent, store and process monsters?

This is a good question, but I don't think very many articles have been written on this.

Firstly, to represent the monster, you need to take everything into consideration (which is why this is the last article about monsters). Does each monster have a name, or do only some? How do you deal with different AI's? How do you store and use spells? How does your monster carry items? And can all monsters do all of these things? If not, how do you know and what do you do about it? Planning (at least each kind of monster), object orientated proramming and good structures should do the job for a large variety system such as this. For the items section in this FAQ, a system was discussed where items were split into 2 categories: properties unique to each item, and properties which are the same throughout the same item (eg. two ordinary swords will do the same damage, but one might have a spell acting on it that the other does not). This system works well for monsters too - all orcs have so many maximum hit points, but each one can have different current hit points (because they have been hurt). So splitting up monsters this way can be a good idea.

Most monsters are stored in some kind of data (or text) file. They are read in when you play the game. Inside the game, monsters will change often - the player will kill them, they might multiply, more will be created, reading a scroll of monster summoning will call up more and so on. So you must make considerations for this from the start. A linked list is very good for storing the monsters inside the game; arrays are going to run into size problems very quickly. If you are programming using object orientated programming, linked lists can store any object derived from a base class, and the right virtual method will still be activated for each monster. Adding new monsters to a linked list is a piece of cake, removing dead ones is just as easy. So linked lists are the storage system of choice.

How do you process monsters? Just pass through the linked list and run some or other function or method for each monster in it. Alternatively, since each map tile points to a monster (if any is standing on it), go through each map tile and process the monster on it.

One problem that could occur is that you get dangling pointers: each spell/person/monster/item attacking/working on/flying towards the current monster points to the monster. When the monster dies, you delete the monster from the list, and those pointers point to who knows where. Unpredictable things could happen. Use "reference counting" (see www.memorymanagement.org). Basically, each monster keeps a count of its "users", initially set to zero. When something new points to the monster, increment the monster's user count by 1. Each turn, those items/spells/whatevers pointing to the monster must check if the monster is dead (marked somehow on the monster without removing it from memory), and if so, stop pointing to the monster, and decrease the monster's user count by 1. Only when the monster's user count is zero, can it be safely deleted from the list and removed from memory.

Another problem you might run into is how to deal with monsters which have different speeds. A monster that takes 3 actions per turn can either make all 3 when it is processed, or you can use the more realistic (and difficult) system where those turns are spread out among everyone else's turns. For this, you might want to keep a separate list for monsters of different speeds, and pass through the linked lists with different speeds more than once, taking only one action each time. Then there are the "haste" and "slow" types of spells that change the number of actions you normally take...

SPELLS

How do you represent a magic system?

You plan it very well in advance first. Don't make magic a black box device - explain it somehow, and integrate it into your story. Decide on the magic system, categories of spells, all of that.

What is a good magic system to use?

Your own. I would not copy from "Dungeons and dragons", other roguelikes, other games, New Age books, Internet websites on magic and paganism, and whatever other sources you might think are good. Maybe get ideas from them, but don't copy spell names or statistics.

Traditionally, most roguelikes work magic similarly to "Dungeons and Dragons", with a few exceptions. Each spell has a level. You have to be on the same or higher level (experience wise) to learn it, and you have to be a class that can learn spells, and have the appropriate spell book. You have a certain amount of magic points. They increase when you level up. Each spell uses some magic points, and when you run out, you can't cast spells. Magic points are restored by resting and with some potions.

How do you enchant objects or make "enchanted" objects?

With great difficulty.

How do you make random spells?

Similarly to random items.


Can you make any money from your roguelike game?

Of course you can. Look at "Dungeon Hack" or "Diablo" for example. Realtime combat and nice looking graphics are heavily recommend if you want to reach out for a broader (paying) audience, though. But all the major roguelikes are free of charge, and all except Adom also permit free distribution and modification of the source code - something that is probably necessary unless you plan to write your game by yourself

List of contributors:

  • David Damarell (Nethack description, question about money from roguelikes)
  • Bridget (list of newsgroups)
  • Jens Baader (list of roguelike games and newsgroups)
  • Philip Swartzleonard (who makes roguelikes)
  • Kornel Kisielewicz (wikified)

If your name isn't here, and you see your text somewhere on this, please e-mail me at dj015@yahoo.com, with what you wrote, so I can add you in.

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