Complete Roguelike Tutorial, using python+libtcod, part 6 code

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#create object representing the player
 
#create object representing the player
 
fighter_component = Fighter(hp=30, defense=2, power=5)
 
fighter_component = Fighter(hp=30, defense=2, power=5)
 +
player = Object(0, 0, '@', 'player', libtcod.white, blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component)
 +
 +
#the list of objects with just the player
 +
objects = [player]
 +
 +
#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
 +
make_map()
 +
 +
#create the FOV map, according to the generated map
 +
fov_map = libtcod.map_new(MAP_WIDTH, MAP_HEIGHT)
 +
for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
 +
    for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
 +
        libtcod.map_set_properties(fov_map, x, y, not map[x][y].blocked, not map[x][y].block_sight)
 +
 +
fov_recompute = True
 +
first_time = True  #for turn-based games
 +
game_state = 'playing'
 +
player_action = None
 +
 +
while not libtcod.console_is_window_closed():
 +
 +
    #erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
 +
    for object in objects:
 +
        object.clear()
 +
   
 +
    #handle keys and exit game if needed
 +
    if not first_time:  #for turn-based games
 +
        player_action = handle_keys()
 +
        if player_action == 'exit':
 +
            break
 +
    first_time = False  #for turn-based games
 +
   
 +
    #let monsters take their turn
 +
    if game_state == 'playing' and player_action != 'didnt-take-turn':
 +
        for object in objects:
 +
            if object.ai:
 +
                object.ai.take_turn()
 +
   
 +
    #render the screen
 +
    render_all()
 +
   
 +
    libtcod.console_flush()
 +
</syntaxhighlight></div>
 +
 +
 +
== Untimely deaths ==
 +
 +
<div style="background-color: #EEEEEE; border-style: dotted"><syntaxhighlight lang="python">
 +
import libtcodpy as libtcod
 +
import math
 +
 +
#actual size of the window
 +
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
 +
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50
 +
 +
#size of the map
 +
MAP_WIDTH = 80
 +
MAP_HEIGHT = 45
 +
 +
#parameters for dungeon generator
 +
ROOM_MAX_SIZE = 10
 +
ROOM_MIN_SIZE = 6
 +
MAX_ROOMS = 30
 +
MAX_ROOM_MONSTERS = 3
 +
 +
 +
FOV_ALGO = 0  #default FOV algorithm
 +
FOV_LIGHT_WALLS = True  #light walls or not
 +
TORCH_RADIUS = 10
 +
 +
LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum
 +
 +
 +
color_dark_wall = libtcod.Color(0, 0, 100)
 +
color_light_wall = libtcod.Color(130, 110, 50)
 +
color_dark_ground = libtcod.Color(50, 50, 150)
 +
color_light_ground = libtcod.Color(200, 180, 50)
 +
 +
 +
class Tile:
 +
    #a tile of the map and its properties
 +
    def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight = None):
 +
        self.blocked = blocked
 +
       
 +
        #all tiles start unexplored
 +
        self.explored = False
 +
       
 +
        #by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
 +
        if block_sight is None: block_sight = blocked
 +
        self.block_sight = block_sight
 +
 +
class Rect:
 +
    #a rectangle on the map. used to characterize a room.
 +
    def __init__(self, x, y, w, h):
 +
        self.x1 = x
 +
        self.y1 = y
 +
        self.x2 = x + w
 +
        self.y2 = y + h
 +
   
 +
    def center(self):
 +
        center_x = (self.x1 + self.x2) / 2
 +
        center_y = (self.y1 + self.y2) / 2
 +
        return (center_x, center_y)
 +
   
 +
    def intersect(self, other):
 +
        #returns true if this rectangle intersects with another one
 +
        return (self.x1 <= other.x2 and self.x2 >= other.x1 and
 +
                self.y1 <= other.y2 and self.y2 >= other.y1)
 +
 +
class Object:
 +
    #this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
 +
    #it's always represented by a character on screen.
 +
    def __init__(self, x, y, char, name, color, blocks=False, fighter=None, ai=None):
 +
        self.x = x
 +
        self.y = y
 +
        self.char = char
 +
        self.name = name
 +
        self.color = color
 +
        self.blocks = blocks
 +
        self.fighter = fighter
 +
        if self.fighter:  #let the fighter component know who owns it
 +
            self.fighter.owner = self
 +
       
 +
        self.ai = ai
 +
        if self.ai:  #let the AI component know who owns it
 +
            self.ai.owner = self
 +
   
 +
    def move(self, dx, dy):
 +
        #move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
 +
        if not is_blocked(self.x + dx, self.y + dy):
 +
            self.x += dx
 +
            self.y += dy
 +
   
 +
    def move_towards(self, target_x, target_y):
 +
        #vector from this object to the target, and distance
 +
        dx = target_x - self.x
 +
        dy = target_y - self.y
 +
        distance = math.sqrt(dx ** 2 + dy ** 2)
 +
       
 +
        #normalize it to length 1 (preserving direction), then round it and
 +
        #convert to integer so the movement is restricted to the map grid
 +
        dx = int(round(dx / distance))
 +
        dy = int(round(dy / distance))
 +
        self.move(dx, dy)
 +
   
 +
    def distance_to(self, other):
 +
        #return the distance to another object
 +
        dx = other.x - self.x
 +
        dy = other.y - self.y
 +
        return math.sqrt(dx ** 2 + dy ** 2)
 +
   
 +
    def draw(self):
 +
        #only show if it's visible to the player
 +
        if libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, self.x, self.y):
 +
            #set the color and then draw the character that represents this object at its position
 +
            libtcod.console_set_foreground_color(con, self.color)
 +
            libtcod.console_put_char(con, self.x, self.y, self.char, libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
 +
   
 +
    def clear(self):
 +
        #erase the character that represents this object
 +
        libtcod.console_put_char(con, self.x, self.y, ' ', libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
 +
 +
 +
class Fighter:
 +
    #combat-related properties and methods (monster, player, NPC).
 +
    def __init__(self, hp, defense, power, death_function=None):
 +
        self.max_hp = hp
 +
        self.hp = hp
 +
        self.defense = defense
 +
        self.power = power
 +
        self.death_function = death_function
 +
       
 +
    def attack(self, target):
 +
        #a simple formula for attack damage
 +
        damage = self.power - target.fighter.defense
 +
       
 +
        if damage > 0:
 +
            #make the target take some damage
 +
            print self.owner.name.capitalize() + ' attacks ' + target.name + ' for ' + str(damage) + ' hit points.'
 +
            target.fighter.take_damage(damage)
 +
        else:
 +
            print self.owner.name.capitalize() + ' attacks ' + target.name + ' but it has no effect!'
 +
   
 +
    def take_damage(self, damage):
 +
        #apply damage if possible
 +
        if damage > 0:
 +
            self.hp -= damage
 +
           
 +
            #check for death. if there's a death function, call it
 +
            if self.hp <= 0:
 +
                function = self.death_function
 +
                if function is not None:
 +
                    function(self.owner)
 +
 +
class BasicMonster:
 +
    #AI for a basic monster.
 +
    def take_turn(self):
 +
        #a basic monster takes its turn. if you can see it, it can see you
 +
        monster = self.owner
 +
        if libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, monster.x, monster.y):
 +
           
 +
            #move towards player if far away
 +
            if monster.distance_to(player) >= 2:
 +
                monster.move_towards(player.x, player.y)
 +
               
 +
            #close enough, attack! (if the player is still alive.)
 +
            elif player.fighter.hp > 0:
 +
                monster.fighter.attack(player)
 +
 +
 +
def is_blocked(x, y):
 +
    #first test the map tile
 +
    if map[x][y].blocked:
 +
        return True
 +
   
 +
    #now check for any blocking objects
 +
    for object in objects:
 +
        if object.blocks and object.x == x and object.y == y:
 +
            return True
 +
   
 +
    return False
 +
 +
def create_room(room):
 +
    global map
 +
    #go through the tiles in the rectangle and make them passable
 +
    for x in range(room.x1 + 1, room.x2):
 +
        for y in range(room.y1 + 1, room.y2):
 +
            map[x][y].blocked = False
 +
            map[x][y].block_sight = False
 +
 +
def create_h_tunnel(x1, x2, y):
 +
    global map
 +
    #horizontal tunnel. min() and max() are used in case x1>x2
 +
    for x in range(min(x1, x2), max(x1, x2) + 1):
 +
        map[x][y].blocked = False
 +
        map[x][y].block_sight = False
 +
 +
def create_v_tunnel(y1, y2, x):
 +
    global map
 +
    #vertical tunnel
 +
    for y in range(min(y1, y2), max(y1, y2) + 1):
 +
        map[x][y].blocked = False
 +
        map[x][y].block_sight = False
 +
 +
def make_map():
 +
    global map, player
 +
   
 +
    #fill map with "blocked" tiles
 +
    map = [[ Tile(True)
 +
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
 +
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]
 +
 +
    rooms = []
 +
    num_rooms = 0
 +
   
 +
    for r in range(MAX_ROOMS):
 +
        #random width and height
 +
        w = libtcod.random_get_int(0, ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
 +
        h = libtcod.random_get_int(0, ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
 +
        #random position without going out of the boundaries of the map
 +
        x = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAP_WIDTH - w - 1)
 +
        y = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAP_HEIGHT - h - 1)
 +
       
 +
        #"Rect" class makes rectangles easier to work with
 +
        new_room = Rect(x, y, w, h)
 +
       
 +
        #run through the other rooms and see if they intersect with this one
 +
        failed = False
 +
        for other_room in rooms:
 +
            if new_room.intersect(other_room):
 +
                failed = True
 +
                break
 +
       
 +
        if not failed:
 +
            #this means there are no intersections, so this room is valid
 +
           
 +
            #"paint" it to the map's tiles
 +
            create_room(new_room)
 +
           
 +
            #add some contents to this room, such as monsters
 +
            place_objects(new_room)
 +
           
 +
            #center coordinates of new room, will be useful later
 +
            (new_x, new_y) = new_room.center()
 +
           
 +
            if num_rooms == 0:
 +
                #this is the first room, where the player starts at
 +
                player.x = new_x
 +
                player.y = new_y
 +
            else:
 +
                #all rooms after the first:
 +
                #connect it to the previous room with a tunnel
 +
               
 +
                #center coordinates of previous room
 +
                (prev_x, prev_y) = rooms[num_rooms-1].center()
 +
               
 +
                #draw a coin (random number that is either 0 or 1)
 +
                if libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, 1) == 1:
 +
                    #first move horizontally, then vertically
 +
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, prev_y)
 +
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, new_x)
 +
                else:
 +
                    #first move vertically, then horizontally
 +
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, prev_x)
 +
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, new_y)
 +
           
 +
            #finally, append the new room to the list
 +
            rooms.append(new_room)
 +
            num_rooms += 1
 +
 +
 +
def place_objects(room):
 +
    #choose random number of monsters
 +
    num_monsters = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAX_ROOM_MONSTERS)
 +
   
 +
    for i in range(num_monsters):
 +
        #choose random spot for this monster
 +
        x = libtcod.random_get_int(0, room.x1, room.x2)
 +
        y = libtcod.random_get_int(0, room.y1, room.y2)
 +
       
 +
        #only place it if the tile is not blocked
 +
        if not is_blocked(x, y):
 +
            if libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, 100) < 80:  #80% chance of getting an orc
 +
                #create an orc
 +
                fighter_component = Fighter(hp=10, defense=0, power=3, death_function=monster_death)
 +
                ai_component = BasicMonster()
 +
               
 +
                monster = Object(x, y, 'o', 'orc', libtcod.desaturated_green,
 +
                    blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component, ai=ai_component)
 +
            else:
 +
                #create a troll
 +
                fighter_component = Fighter(hp=16, defense=1, power=4, death_function=monster_death)
 +
                ai_component = BasicMonster()
 +
               
 +
                monster = Object(x, y, 'T', 'troll', libtcod.darker_green,
 +
                    blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component, ai=ai_component)
 +
           
 +
            objects.append(monster)
 +
 +
 +
def render_all():
 +
    global fov_map, color_dark_wall, color_light_wall
 +
    global color_dark_ground, color_light_ground
 +
    global fov_recompute
 +
   
 +
    if fov_recompute:
 +
        #recompute FOV if needed (the player moved or something)
 +
        fov_recompute = False
 +
        libtcod.map_compute_fov(fov_map, player.x, player.y, TORCH_RADIUS, FOV_LIGHT_WALLS, FOV_ALGO)
 +
 +
        #go through all tiles, and set their background color according to the FOV
 +
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
 +
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
 +
                visible = libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, x, y)
 +
                wall = map[x][y].block_sight
 +
                if not visible:
 +
                    #if it's not visible right now, the player can only see it if it's explored
 +
                    if map[x][y].explored:
 +
                        if wall:
 +
                            libtcod.console_set_back(con, x, y, color_dark_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
 +
                        else:
 +
                            libtcod.console_set_back(con, x, y, color_dark_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
 +
                else:
 +
                    #it's visible
 +
                    if wall:
 +
                        libtcod.console_set_back(con, x, y, color_light_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
 +
                    else:
 +
                        libtcod.console_set_back(con, x, y, color_light_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
 +
                    #since it's visible, explore it
 +
                    map[x][y].explored = True
 +
 +
    #draw all objects in the list, except the player. we want it to
 +
    #always appear over all other objects! so it's drawn later.
 +
    for object in objects:
 +
        if object != player:
 +
            object.draw()
 +
    player.draw()
 +
   
 +
    #blit the contents of "con" to the root console
 +
    libtcod.console_blit(con, 0, 0, SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 0, 0, 0)
 +
   
 +
    #show the player's stats
 +
    libtcod.console_set_foreground_color(con, libtcod.white)
 +
    libtcod.console_print_left(0, 1, SCREEN_HEIGHT - 2, libtcod.BKGND_NONE,
 +
        'HP: ' + str(player.fighter.hp) + '/' + str(player.fighter.max_hp))
 +
 +
 +
def player_move_or_attack(dx, dy):
 +
    global fov_recompute
 +
   
 +
    #the coordinates the player is moving to/attacking
 +
    x = player.x + dx
 +
    y = player.y + dy
 +
   
 +
    #try to find an attackable object there
 +
    target = None
 +
    for object in objects:
 +
        if object.fighter and object.x == x and object.y == y:
 +
            target = object
 +
            break
 +
   
 +
    #attack if target found, move otherwise
 +
    if target is not None:
 +
        player.fighter.attack(target)
 +
    else:
 +
        player.move(dx, dy)
 +
        fov_recompute = True
 +
 +
 +
def handle_keys():
 +
    #key = libtcod.console_check_for_keypress()  #real-time
 +
    key = libtcod.console_wait_for_keypress(True)  #turn-based
 +
   
 +
    if key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ENTER and key.lalt:
 +
        #Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
 +
        libtcod.console_set_fullscreen(not libtcod.console_is_fullscreen())
 +
       
 +
    elif key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ESCAPE:
 +
        return 'exit'  #exit game
 +
   
 +
    if game_state == 'playing':
 +
        #movement keys
 +
        if libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_UP):
 +
            player_move_or_attack(0, -1)
 +
           
 +
        elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_DOWN):
 +
            player_move_or_attack(0, 1)
 +
           
 +
        elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_LEFT):
 +
            player_move_or_attack(-1, 0)
 +
           
 +
        elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_RIGHT):
 +
            player_move_or_attack(1, 0)
 +
        else:
 +
            return 'didnt-take-turn'
 +
 +
def player_death(player):
 +
    #the game ended!
 +
    global game_state
 +
    print 'You died!'
 +
    game_state = 'dead'
 +
   
 +
    #for added effect, transform the player into a corpse!
 +
    player.char = '%'
 +
    player.color = libtcod.dark_red
 +
 +
def monster_death(monster):
 +
    #transform it into a nasty corpse! it doesn't block, can't be
 +
    #attacked and doesn't move
 +
    print monster.name.capitalize() + ' is dead!'
 +
    monster.char = '%'
 +
    monster.color = libtcod.dark_red
 +
    monster.blocks = False
 +
    monster.fighter = None
 +
    monster.ai = None
 +
    monster.name = 'remains of ' + monster.name
 +
 +
 +
#############################################
 +
# Initialization & Main Loop
 +
#############################################
 +
 +
libtcod.console_set_custom_font('arial10x10.png', libtcod.FONT_TYPE_GREYSCALE | libtcod.FONT_LAYOUT_TCOD)
 +
libtcod.console_init_root(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 'python/libtcod tutorial', False)
 +
libtcod.sys_set_fps(LIMIT_FPS)
 +
con = libtcod.console_new(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT)
 +
 +
#create object representing the player
 +
fighter_component = Fighter(hp=30, defense=2, power=5, death_function=player_death)
 
player = Object(0, 0, '@', 'player', libtcod.white, blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component)
 
player = Object(0, 0, '@', 'player', libtcod.white, blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component)
  

Revision as of 22:52, 18 August 2010

This is part of the code for a series of tutorials; the main page can be found here.


AI

import libtcodpy as libtcod
import math
 
#actual size of the window
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50
 
#size of the map
MAP_WIDTH = 80
MAP_HEIGHT = 45
 
#parameters for dungeon generator
ROOM_MAX_SIZE = 10
ROOM_MIN_SIZE = 6
MAX_ROOMS = 30
MAX_ROOM_MONSTERS = 3
 
 
FOV_ALGO = 0  #default FOV algorithm
FOV_LIGHT_WALLS = True  #light walls or not
TORCH_RADIUS = 10
 
LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum
 
 
color_dark_wall = libtcod.Color(0, 0, 100)
color_light_wall = libtcod.Color(130, 110, 50)
color_dark_ground = libtcod.Color(50, 50, 150)
color_light_ground = libtcod.Color(200, 180, 50)
 
 
class Tile:
    #a tile of the map and its properties
    def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight = None):
        self.blocked = blocked
 
        #all tiles start unexplored
        self.explored = False
 
        #by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
        if block_sight is None: block_sight = blocked
        self.block_sight = block_sight
 
class Rect:
    #a rectangle on the map. used to characterize a room.
    def __init__(self, x, y, w, h):
        self.x1 = x
        self.y1 = y
        self.x2 = x + w
        self.y2 = y + h
 
    def center(self):
        center_x = (self.x1 + self.x2) / 2
        center_y = (self.y1 + self.y2) / 2
        return (center_x, center_y)
 
    def intersect(self, other):
        #returns true if this rectangle intersects with another one
        return (self.x1 <= other.x2 and self.x2 >= other.x1 and
                self.y1 <= other.y2 and self.y2 >= other.y1)
 
class Object:
    #this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
    #it's always represented by a character on screen.
    def __init__(self, x, y, char, name, color, blocks=False, fighter=None, ai=None):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y
        self.char = char
        self.name = name
        self.color = color
        self.blocks = blocks
        self.fighter = fighter
        if self.fighter:  #let the fighter component know who owns it
            self.fighter.owner = self
 
        self.ai = ai
        if self.ai:  #let the AI component know who owns it
            self.ai.owner = self
 
    def move(self, dx, dy):
        #move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
        if not is_blocked(self.x + dx, self.y + dy):
            self.x += dx
            self.y += dy
 
    def move_towards(self, target_x, target_y):
        #vector from this object to the target, and distance
        dx = target_x - self.x
        dy = target_y - self.y
        distance = math.sqrt(dx ** 2 + dy ** 2)
 
        #normalize it to length 1 (preserving direction), then round it and
        #convert to integer so the movement is restricted to the map grid
        dx = int(round(dx / distance))
        dy = int(round(dy / distance))
        self.move(dx, dy)
 
    def distance_to(self, other):
        #return the distance to another object
        dx = other.x - self.x
        dy = other.y - self.y
        return math.sqrt(dx ** 2 + dy ** 2)
 
    def draw(self):
        #only show if it's visible to the player
        if libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, self.x, self.y):
            #set the color and then draw the character that represents this object at its position
            libtcod.console_set_foreground_color(con, self.color)
            libtcod.console_put_char(con, self.x, self.y, self.char, libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
 
    def clear(self):
        #erase the character that represents this object
        libtcod.console_put_char(con, self.x, self.y, ' ', libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
 
 
class Fighter:
    #combat-related properties and methods (monster, player, NPC).
    def __init__(self, hp, defense, power):
        self.max_hp = hp
        self.hp = hp
        self.defense = defense
        self.power = power
 
class BasicMonster:
    #AI for a basic monster.
    def take_turn(self):
        #a basic monster takes its turn. if you can see it, it can see you
        monster = self.owner
        if libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, monster.x, monster.y):
 
            #move towards player if far away
            if monster.distance_to(player) >= 2:
                monster.move_towards(player.x, player.y)
 
            #close enough, attack! (if the player is still alive.)
            elif player.fighter.hp > 0:
                print 'The attack of the ' + monster.name + ' bounces off your shiny metal armor!'
 
 
def is_blocked(x, y):
    #first test the map tile
    if map[x][y].blocked:
        return True
 
    #now check for any blocking objects
    for object in objects:
        if object.blocks and object.x == x and object.y == y:
            return True
 
    return False
 
def create_room(room):
    global map
    #go through the tiles in the rectangle and make them passable
    for x in range(room.x1 + 1, room.x2):
        for y in range(room.y1 + 1, room.y2):
            map[x][y].blocked = False
            map[x][y].block_sight = False
 
def create_h_tunnel(x1, x2, y):
    global map
    #horizontal tunnel. min() and max() are used in case x1>x2
    for x in range(min(x1, x2), max(x1, x2) + 1):
        map[x][y].blocked = False
        map[x][y].block_sight = False
 
def create_v_tunnel(y1, y2, x):
    global map
    #vertical tunnel
    for y in range(min(y1, y2), max(y1, y2) + 1):
        map[x][y].blocked = False
        map[x][y].block_sight = False
 
def make_map():
    global map, player
 
    #fill map with "blocked" tiles
    map = [[ Tile(True)
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]
 
    rooms = []
    num_rooms = 0
 
    for r in range(MAX_ROOMS):
        #random width and height
        w = libtcod.random_get_int(0, ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
        h = libtcod.random_get_int(0, ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
        #random position without going out of the boundaries of the map
        x = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAP_WIDTH - w - 1)
        y = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAP_HEIGHT - h - 1)
 
        #"Rect" class makes rectangles easier to work with
        new_room = Rect(x, y, w, h)
 
        #run through the other rooms and see if they intersect with this one
        failed = False
        for other_room in rooms:
            if new_room.intersect(other_room):
                failed = True
                break
 
        if not failed:
            #this means there are no intersections, so this room is valid
 
            #"paint" it to the map's tiles
            create_room(new_room)
 
            #add some contents to this room, such as monsters
            place_objects(new_room)
 
            #center coordinates of new room, will be useful later
            (new_x, new_y) = new_room.center()
 
            if num_rooms == 0:
                #this is the first room, where the player starts at
                player.x = new_x
                player.y = new_y
            else:
                #all rooms after the first:
                #connect it to the previous room with a tunnel
 
                #center coordinates of previous room
                (prev_x, prev_y) = rooms[num_rooms-1].center()
 
                #draw a coin (random number that is either 0 or 1)
                if libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, 1) == 1:
                    #first move horizontally, then vertically
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, prev_y)
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, new_x)
                else:
                    #first move vertically, then horizontally
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, prev_x)
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, new_y)
 
            #finally, append the new room to the list
            rooms.append(new_room)
            num_rooms += 1
 
 
def place_objects(room):
    #choose random number of monsters
    num_monsters = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAX_ROOM_MONSTERS)
 
    for i in range(num_monsters):
        #choose random spot for this monster
        x = libtcod.random_get_int(0, room.x1, room.x2)
        y = libtcod.random_get_int(0, room.y1, room.y2)
 
        #only place it if the tile is not blocked
        if not is_blocked(x, y):
            if libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, 100) < 80:  #80% chance of getting an orc
                #create an orc
                fighter_component = Fighter(hp=10, defense=0, power=3)
                ai_component = BasicMonster()
 
                monster = Object(x, y, 'o', 'orc', libtcod.desaturated_green,
                    blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component, ai=ai_component)
            else:
                #create a troll
                fighter_component = Fighter(hp=16, defense=1, power=4)
                ai_component = BasicMonster()
 
                monster = Object(x, y, 'T', 'troll', libtcod.darker_green,
                    blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component, ai=ai_component)
 
            objects.append(monster)
 
 
def render_all():
    global fov_map, color_dark_wall, color_light_wall
    global color_dark_ground, color_light_ground
    global fov_recompute
 
    if fov_recompute:
        #recompute FOV if needed (the player moved or something)
        fov_recompute = False
        libtcod.map_compute_fov(fov_map, player.x, player.y, TORCH_RADIUS, FOV_LIGHT_WALLS, FOV_ALGO)
 
        #go through all tiles, and set their background color according to the FOV
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
                visible = libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, x, y)
                wall = map[x][y].block_sight
                if not visible:
                    #if it's not visible right now, the player can only see it if it's explored
                    if map[x][y].explored:
                        if wall:
                            libtcod.console_set_back(con, x, y, color_dark_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
                        else:
                            libtcod.console_set_back(con, x, y, color_dark_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
                else:
                    #it's visible
                    if wall:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(con, x, y, color_light_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
                    else:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(con, x, y, color_light_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
                    #since it's visible, explore it
                    map[x][y].explored = True
 
    #draw all objects in the list
    for object in objects:
        object.draw()
 
    #blit the contents of "con" to the root console
    libtcod.console_blit(con, 0, 0, SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 0, 0, 0)
 
def player_move_or_attack(dx, dy):
    global fov_recompute
 
    #the coordinates the player is moving to/attacking
    x = player.x + dx
    y = player.y + dy
 
    #try to find an attackable object there
    target = None
    for object in objects:
        if object.x == x and object.y == y:
            target = object
            break
 
    #attack if target found, move otherwise
    if target is not None:
        print 'The ' + target.name + ' laughs at your puny efforts to attack him!'
    else:
        player.move(dx, dy)
        fov_recompute = True
 
 
def handle_keys():
    #key = libtcod.console_check_for_keypress()  #real-time
    key = libtcod.console_wait_for_keypress(True)  #turn-based
 
    if key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ENTER and key.lalt:
        #Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
        libtcod.console_set_fullscreen(not libtcod.console_is_fullscreen())
 
    elif key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ESCAPE:
        return 'exit'  #exit game
 
    if game_state == 'playing':
        #movement keys
        if libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_UP):
            player_move_or_attack(0, -1)
 
        elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_DOWN):
            player_move_or_attack(0, 1)
 
        elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_LEFT):
            player_move_or_attack(-1, 0)
 
        elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_RIGHT):
            player_move_or_attack(1, 0)
 
        else:
            return 'didnt-take-turn'
 
 
#############################################
# Initialization & Main Loop
#############################################
 
libtcod.console_set_custom_font('arial10x10.png', libtcod.FONT_TYPE_GREYSCALE | libtcod.FONT_LAYOUT_TCOD)
libtcod.console_init_root(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 'python/libtcod tutorial', False)
libtcod.sys_set_fps(LIMIT_FPS)
con = libtcod.console_new(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT)
 
#create object representing the player
fighter_component = Fighter(hp=30, defense=2, power=5)
player = Object(0, 0, '@', 'player', libtcod.white, blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component)
 
#the list of objects with just the player
objects = [player]
 
#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
make_map()
 
#create the FOV map, according to the generated map
fov_map = libtcod.map_new(MAP_WIDTH, MAP_HEIGHT)
for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
    for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
        libtcod.map_set_properties(fov_map, x, y, not map[x][y].blocked, not map[x][y].block_sight)
 
fov_recompute = True
first_time = True  #for turn-based games
game_state = 'playing'
player_action = None
 
while not libtcod.console_is_window_closed():
 
    #erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
    for object in objects:
        object.clear()
 
    #handle keys and exit game if needed
    if not first_time:  #for turn-based games
        player_action = handle_keys()
        if player_action == 'exit':
            break
    first_time = False  #for turn-based games
 
    #let monsters take their turn
    if game_state == 'playing' and player_action != 'didnt-take-turn':
        for object in objects:
            if object.ai:
                object.ai.take_turn()
 
    #render the screen
    render_all()
 
    libtcod.console_flush()


Untimely deaths

import libtcodpy as libtcod
import math
 
#actual size of the window
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50
 
#size of the map
MAP_WIDTH = 80
MAP_HEIGHT = 45
 
#parameters for dungeon generator
ROOM_MAX_SIZE = 10
ROOM_MIN_SIZE = 6
MAX_ROOMS = 30
MAX_ROOM_MONSTERS = 3
 
 
FOV_ALGO = 0  #default FOV algorithm
FOV_LIGHT_WALLS = True  #light walls or not
TORCH_RADIUS = 10
 
LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum
 
 
color_dark_wall = libtcod.Color(0, 0, 100)
color_light_wall = libtcod.Color(130, 110, 50)
color_dark_ground = libtcod.Color(50, 50, 150)
color_light_ground = libtcod.Color(200, 180, 50)
 
 
class Tile:
    #a tile of the map and its properties
    def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight = None):
        self.blocked = blocked
 
        #all tiles start unexplored
        self.explored = False
 
        #by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
        if block_sight is None: block_sight = blocked
        self.block_sight = block_sight
 
class Rect:
    #a rectangle on the map. used to characterize a room.
    def __init__(self, x, y, w, h):
        self.x1 = x
        self.y1 = y
        self.x2 = x + w
        self.y2 = y + h
 
    def center(self):
        center_x = (self.x1 + self.x2) / 2
        center_y = (self.y1 + self.y2) / 2
        return (center_x, center_y)
 
    def intersect(self, other):
        #returns true if this rectangle intersects with another one
        return (self.x1 <= other.x2 and self.x2 >= other.x1 and
                self.y1 <= other.y2 and self.y2 >= other.y1)
 
class Object:
    #this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
    #it's always represented by a character on screen.
    def __init__(self, x, y, char, name, color, blocks=False, fighter=None, ai=None):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y
        self.char = char
        self.name = name
        self.color = color
        self.blocks = blocks
        self.fighter = fighter
        if self.fighter:  #let the fighter component know who owns it
            self.fighter.owner = self
 
        self.ai = ai
        if self.ai:  #let the AI component know who owns it
            self.ai.owner = self
 
    def move(self, dx, dy):
        #move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
        if not is_blocked(self.x + dx, self.y + dy):
            self.x += dx
            self.y += dy
 
    def move_towards(self, target_x, target_y):
        #vector from this object to the target, and distance
        dx = target_x - self.x
        dy = target_y - self.y
        distance = math.sqrt(dx ** 2 + dy ** 2)
 
        #normalize it to length 1 (preserving direction), then round it and
        #convert to integer so the movement is restricted to the map grid
        dx = int(round(dx / distance))
        dy = int(round(dy / distance))
        self.move(dx, dy)
 
    def distance_to(self, other):
        #return the distance to another object
        dx = other.x - self.x
        dy = other.y - self.y
        return math.sqrt(dx ** 2 + dy ** 2)
 
    def draw(self):
        #only show if it's visible to the player
        if libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, self.x, self.y):
            #set the color and then draw the character that represents this object at its position
            libtcod.console_set_foreground_color(con, self.color)
            libtcod.console_put_char(con, self.x, self.y, self.char, libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
 
    def clear(self):
        #erase the character that represents this object
        libtcod.console_put_char(con, self.x, self.y, ' ', libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
 
 
class Fighter:
    #combat-related properties and methods (monster, player, NPC).
    def __init__(self, hp, defense, power, death_function=None):
        self.max_hp = hp
        self.hp = hp
        self.defense = defense
        self.power = power
        self.death_function = death_function
 
    def attack(self, target):
        #a simple formula for attack damage
        damage = self.power - target.fighter.defense
 
        if damage > 0:
            #make the target take some damage
            print self.owner.name.capitalize() + ' attacks ' + target.name + ' for ' + str(damage) + ' hit points.'
            target.fighter.take_damage(damage)
        else:
            print self.owner.name.capitalize() + ' attacks ' + target.name + ' but it has no effect!'
 
    def take_damage(self, damage):
        #apply damage if possible
        if damage > 0:
            self.hp -= damage
 
            #check for death. if there's a death function, call it
            if self.hp <= 0:
                function = self.death_function
                if function is not None:
                    function(self.owner)
 
class BasicMonster:
    #AI for a basic monster.
    def take_turn(self):
        #a basic monster takes its turn. if you can see it, it can see you
        monster = self.owner
        if libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, monster.x, monster.y):
 
            #move towards player if far away
            if monster.distance_to(player) >= 2:
                monster.move_towards(player.x, player.y)
 
            #close enough, attack! (if the player is still alive.)
            elif player.fighter.hp > 0:
                monster.fighter.attack(player)
 
 
def is_blocked(x, y):
    #first test the map tile
    if map[x][y].blocked:
        return True
 
    #now check for any blocking objects
    for object in objects:
        if object.blocks and object.x == x and object.y == y:
            return True
 
    return False
 
def create_room(room):
    global map
    #go through the tiles in the rectangle and make them passable
    for x in range(room.x1 + 1, room.x2):
        for y in range(room.y1 + 1, room.y2):
            map[x][y].blocked = False
            map[x][y].block_sight = False
 
def create_h_tunnel(x1, x2, y):
    global map
    #horizontal tunnel. min() and max() are used in case x1>x2
    for x in range(min(x1, x2), max(x1, x2) + 1):
        map[x][y].blocked = False
        map[x][y].block_sight = False
 
def create_v_tunnel(y1, y2, x):
    global map
    #vertical tunnel
    for y in range(min(y1, y2), max(y1, y2) + 1):
        map[x][y].blocked = False
        map[x][y].block_sight = False
 
def make_map():
    global map, player
 
    #fill map with "blocked" tiles
    map = [[ Tile(True)
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]
 
    rooms = []
    num_rooms = 0
 
    for r in range(MAX_ROOMS):
        #random width and height
        w = libtcod.random_get_int(0, ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
        h = libtcod.random_get_int(0, ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
        #random position without going out of the boundaries of the map
        x = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAP_WIDTH - w - 1)
        y = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAP_HEIGHT - h - 1)
 
        #"Rect" class makes rectangles easier to work with
        new_room = Rect(x, y, w, h)
 
        #run through the other rooms and see if they intersect with this one
        failed = False
        for other_room in rooms:
            if new_room.intersect(other_room):
                failed = True
                break
 
        if not failed:
            #this means there are no intersections, so this room is valid
 
            #"paint" it to the map's tiles
            create_room(new_room)
 
            #add some contents to this room, such as monsters
            place_objects(new_room)
 
            #center coordinates of new room, will be useful later
            (new_x, new_y) = new_room.center()
 
            if num_rooms == 0:
                #this is the first room, where the player starts at
                player.x = new_x
                player.y = new_y
            else:
                #all rooms after the first:
                #connect it to the previous room with a tunnel
 
                #center coordinates of previous room
                (prev_x, prev_y) = rooms[num_rooms-1].center()
 
                #draw a coin (random number that is either 0 or 1)
                if libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, 1) == 1:
                    #first move horizontally, then vertically
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, prev_y)
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, new_x)
                else:
                    #first move vertically, then horizontally
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, prev_x)
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, new_y)
 
            #finally, append the new room to the list
            rooms.append(new_room)
            num_rooms += 1
 
 
def place_objects(room):
    #choose random number of monsters
    num_monsters = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAX_ROOM_MONSTERS)
 
    for i in range(num_monsters):
        #choose random spot for this monster
        x = libtcod.random_get_int(0, room.x1, room.x2)
        y = libtcod.random_get_int(0, room.y1, room.y2)
 
        #only place it if the tile is not blocked
        if not is_blocked(x, y):
            if libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, 100) < 80:  #80% chance of getting an orc
                #create an orc
                fighter_component = Fighter(hp=10, defense=0, power=3, death_function=monster_death)
                ai_component = BasicMonster()
 
                monster = Object(x, y, 'o', 'orc', libtcod.desaturated_green,
                    blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component, ai=ai_component)
            else:
                #create a troll
                fighter_component = Fighter(hp=16, defense=1, power=4, death_function=monster_death)
                ai_component = BasicMonster()
 
                monster = Object(x, y, 'T', 'troll', libtcod.darker_green,
                    blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component, ai=ai_component)
 
            objects.append(monster)
 
 
def render_all():
    global fov_map, color_dark_wall, color_light_wall
    global color_dark_ground, color_light_ground
    global fov_recompute
 
    if fov_recompute:
        #recompute FOV if needed (the player moved or something)
        fov_recompute = False
        libtcod.map_compute_fov(fov_map, player.x, player.y, TORCH_RADIUS, FOV_LIGHT_WALLS, FOV_ALGO)
 
        #go through all tiles, and set their background color according to the FOV
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
                visible = libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, x, y)
                wall = map[x][y].block_sight
                if not visible:
                    #if it's not visible right now, the player can only see it if it's explored
                    if map[x][y].explored:
                        if wall:
                            libtcod.console_set_back(con, x, y, color_dark_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
                        else:
                            libtcod.console_set_back(con, x, y, color_dark_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
                else:
                    #it's visible
                    if wall:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(con, x, y, color_light_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
                    else:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(con, x, y, color_light_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
                    #since it's visible, explore it
                    map[x][y].explored = True
 
    #draw all objects in the list, except the player. we want it to
    #always appear over all other objects! so it's drawn later.
    for object in objects:
        if object != player:
            object.draw()
    player.draw()
 
    #blit the contents of "con" to the root console
    libtcod.console_blit(con, 0, 0, SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 0, 0, 0)
 
    #show the player's stats
    libtcod.console_set_foreground_color(con, libtcod.white)
    libtcod.console_print_left(0, 1, SCREEN_HEIGHT - 2, libtcod.BKGND_NONE,
        'HP: ' + str(player.fighter.hp) + '/' + str(player.fighter.max_hp))
 
 
def player_move_or_attack(dx, dy):
    global fov_recompute
 
    #the coordinates the player is moving to/attacking
    x = player.x + dx
    y = player.y + dy
 
    #try to find an attackable object there
    target = None
    for object in objects:
        if object.fighter and object.x == x and object.y == y:
            target = object
            break
 
    #attack if target found, move otherwise
    if target is not None:
        player.fighter.attack(target)
    else:
        player.move(dx, dy)
        fov_recompute = True
 
 
def handle_keys():
    #key = libtcod.console_check_for_keypress()  #real-time
    key = libtcod.console_wait_for_keypress(True)  #turn-based
 
    if key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ENTER and key.lalt:
        #Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
        libtcod.console_set_fullscreen(not libtcod.console_is_fullscreen())
 
    elif key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ESCAPE:
        return 'exit'  #exit game
 
    if game_state == 'playing':
        #movement keys
        if libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_UP):
            player_move_or_attack(0, -1)
 
        elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_DOWN):
            player_move_or_attack(0, 1)
 
        elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_LEFT):
            player_move_or_attack(-1, 0)
 
        elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_RIGHT):
            player_move_or_attack(1, 0)
        else:
            return 'didnt-take-turn'
 
def player_death(player):
    #the game ended!
    global game_state
    print 'You died!'
    game_state = 'dead'
 
    #for added effect, transform the player into a corpse!
    player.char = '%'
    player.color = libtcod.dark_red
 
def monster_death(monster):
    #transform it into a nasty corpse! it doesn't block, can't be
    #attacked and doesn't move
    print monster.name.capitalize() + ' is dead!'
    monster.char = '%'
    monster.color = libtcod.dark_red
    monster.blocks = False
    monster.fighter = None
    monster.ai = None
    monster.name = 'remains of ' + monster.name
 
 
#############################################
# Initialization & Main Loop
#############################################
 
libtcod.console_set_custom_font('arial10x10.png', libtcod.FONT_TYPE_GREYSCALE | libtcod.FONT_LAYOUT_TCOD)
libtcod.console_init_root(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 'python/libtcod tutorial', False)
libtcod.sys_set_fps(LIMIT_FPS)
con = libtcod.console_new(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT)
 
#create object representing the player
fighter_component = Fighter(hp=30, defense=2, power=5, death_function=player_death)
player = Object(0, 0, '@', 'player', libtcod.white, blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component)
 
#the list of objects with just the player
objects = [player]
 
#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
make_map()
 
#create the FOV map, according to the generated map
fov_map = libtcod.map_new(MAP_WIDTH, MAP_HEIGHT)
for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
    for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
        libtcod.map_set_properties(fov_map, x, y, not map[x][y].blocked, not map[x][y].block_sight)
 
fov_recompute = True
first_time = True  #for turn-based games
game_state = 'playing'
player_action = None
 
while not libtcod.console_is_window_closed():
 
    #erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
    for object in objects:
        object.clear()
 
    #handle keys and exit game if needed
    if not first_time:  #for turn-based games
        player_action = handle_keys()
        if player_action == 'exit':
            break
    first_time = False  #for turn-based games
 
    #let monsters take their turn
    if game_state == 'playing' and player_action != 'didnt-take-turn':
        for object in objects:
            if object.ai:
                object.ai.take_turn()
 
    #render the screen
    render_all()
 
    libtcod.console_flush()
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