Complete Roguelike Tutorial, using python+libtcod, part 2 code

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Line 781: Line 781:
 
                     else:
 
                     else:
 
                         libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_light_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
 
                         libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_light_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
 +
   
 +
def handle_keys():
 +
    global fov_recompute
 +
   
 +
    key = libtcod.console_check_for_keypress()  #real-time
 +
    #key = libtcod.console_wait_for_keypress(True)  #turn-based
 +
   
 +
    if key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ENTER and key.lalt:
 +
        #Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
 +
        libtcod.console_set_fullscreen(not libtcod.console_is_fullscreen())
 +
       
 +
    elif key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ESCAPE:
 +
        return True  #exit game
 +
   
 +
    #movement keys
 +
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_UP):
 +
        player.move(0, -1)
 +
        fov_recompute = True
 +
       
 +
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_DOWN):
 +
        player.move(0, 1)
 +
        fov_recompute = True
 +
       
 +
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_LEFT):
 +
        player.move(-1, 0)
 +
        fov_recompute = True
 +
       
 +
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_RIGHT):
 +
        player.move(1, 0)
 +
        fov_recompute = True
 +
 +
 +
#############################################
 +
# Initialization & Main Loop
 +
#############################################
 +
 +
libtcod.console_set_custom_font('arial10x10.png', libtcod.FONT_TYPE_GREYSCALE | libtcod.FONT_LAYOUT_TCOD)
 +
libtcod.console_init_root(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 'python/libtcod tutorial', False)
 +
libtcod.sys_set_fps(LIMIT_FPS)
 +
 +
#create object representing the player
 +
player = Object(SCREEN_WIDTH/2, SCREEN_HEIGHT/2, '@', libtcod.white)
 +
 +
#create an NPC
 +
npc = Object(SCREEN_WIDTH/2 - 5, SCREEN_HEIGHT/2, '@', libtcod.yellow)
 +
 +
#the list of objects with those two
 +
objects = [npc, player]
 +
 +
#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
 +
make_map()
 +
 +
#create the FOV map, according to the generated map
 +
fov_map = libtcod.map_new(MAP_WIDTH, MAP_HEIGHT)
 +
for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
 +
    for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
 +
        libtcod.map_set_properties(fov_map, x, y, not map[x][y].blocked, not map[x][y].block_sight)
 +
 +
 +
fov_recompute = True
 +
#first_time = True  #for turn-based games
 +
 +
while not libtcod.console_is_window_closed():
 +
 +
    #erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
 +
    for object in objects:
 +
        object.clear()
 +
   
 +
    #handle keys and exit game if needed
 +
    #if not first_time:  #for turn-based games
 +
    exit = handle_keys()
 +
    if exit:
 +
        break
 +
    #first_time = False  #for turn-based games
 +
   
 +
    #render the screen
 +
    render_all()
 +
   
 +
    libtcod.console_flush()
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
 +
== Exploration ==
 +
<pre>
 +
 +
import libtcodpy as libtcod
 +
 +
#actual size of the window
 +
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
 +
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50
 +
 +
#size of the map
 +
MAP_WIDTH = 80
 +
MAP_HEIGHT = 45
 +
 +
#parameters for dungeon generator
 +
ROOM_MAX_SIZE = 10
 +
ROOM_MIN_SIZE = 6
 +
MAX_ROOMS = 30
 +
 +
 +
FOV_ALGO = 0  #default FOV algorithm
 +
FOV_LIGHT_WALLS = True  #light walls or not
 +
TORCH_RADIUS = 10
 +
 +
LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum
 +
 +
 +
color_dark_wall = libtcod.Color(0, 0, 100)
 +
color_light_wall = libtcod.Color(130, 110, 50)
 +
color_dark_ground = libtcod.Color(50, 50, 150)
 +
color_light_ground = libtcod.Color(200, 180, 50)
 +
 +
 +
class Tile:
 +
    #a tile of the map and its properties
 +
    def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight = None):
 +
        self.blocked = blocked
 +
       
 +
        #all tiles start unexplored
 +
        self.explored = False
 +
       
 +
        #by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
 +
        if block_sight is None: block_sight = blocked
 +
        self.block_sight = block_sight
 +
 +
class Rect:
 +
    #a rectangle on the map. used to characterize a room.
 +
    def __init__(self, x, y, w, h):
 +
        self.x1 = x
 +
        self.y1 = y
 +
        self.x2 = x + w
 +
        self.y2 = y + h
 +
   
 +
    def center(self):
 +
        center_x = (self.x1 + self.x2) / 2
 +
        center_y = (self.y1 + self.y2) / 2
 +
        return (center_x, center_y)
 +
   
 +
    def intersect(self, other):
 +
        #returns true if this rectangle intersects with another one
 +
        return (self.x1 <= other.x2 and self.x2 >= other.x1 and
 +
                self.y1 <= other.y2 and self.y2 >= other.y1)
 +
 +
class Object:
 +
    #this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
 +
    #it's always represented by a character on screen.
 +
    def __init__(self, x, y, char, color):
 +
        self.x = x
 +
        self.y = y
 +
        self.char = char
 +
        self.color = color
 +
   
 +
    def move(self, dx, dy):
 +
        #move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
 +
        if not map[self.x + dx][self.y + dy].blocked:
 +
            self.x += dx
 +
            self.y += dy
 +
   
 +
    def draw(self):
 +
        #only show if it's visible to the player
 +
        if libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, self.x, self.y):
 +
            #set the color and then draw the character that represents this object at its position
 +
            libtcod.console_set_foreground_color(0, self.color)
 +
            libtcod.console_put_char(0, self.x, self.y, self.char, libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
 +
   
 +
    def clear(self):
 +
        #erase the character that represents this object
 +
        libtcod.console_put_char(0, self.x, self.y, ' ', libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
 +
 +
 +
 +
def create_room(room):
 +
    global map
 +
    #go through the tiles in the rectangle and make them passable
 +
    for x in range(room.x1 + 1, room.x2):
 +
        for y in range(room.y1 + 1, room.y2):
 +
            map[x][y].blocked = False
 +
            map[x][y].block_sight = False
 +
 +
def create_h_tunnel(x1, x2, y):
 +
    global map
 +
    #horizontal tunnel. min() and max() are used in case x1>x2
 +
    for x in range(min(x1, x2), max(x1, x2) + 1):
 +
        map[x][y].blocked = False
 +
        map[x][y].block_sight = False
 +
 +
def create_v_tunnel(y1, y2, x):
 +
    global map
 +
    #vertical tunnel
 +
    for y in range(min(y1, y2), max(y1, y2) + 1):
 +
        map[x][y].blocked = False
 +
        map[x][y].block_sight = False
 +
 +
def make_map():
 +
    global map, player
 +
   
 +
    #fill map with "blocked" tiles
 +
    map = [[ Tile(True)
 +
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
 +
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]
 +
 +
    rooms = []
 +
    num_rooms = 0
 +
   
 +
    for r in range(MAX_ROOMS):
 +
        #random width and height
 +
        w = libtcod.random_get_int(0, ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
 +
        h = libtcod.random_get_int(0, ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
 +
        #random position without going out of the boundaries of the map
 +
        x = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAP_WIDTH - w - 1)
 +
        y = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAP_HEIGHT - h - 1)
 +
       
 +
        #"Rect" class makes rectangles easier to work with
 +
        new_room = Rect(x, y, w, h)
 +
       
 +
        #run through the other rooms and see if they intersect with this one
 +
        failed = False
 +
        for other_room in rooms:
 +
            if new_room.intersect(other_room):
 +
                failed = True
 +
                break
 +
       
 +
        if not failed:
 +
            #this means there are no intersections, so this room is valid
 +
           
 +
            #"paint" it to the map's tiles
 +
            create_room(new_room)
 +
           
 +
            #center coordinates of new room, will be useful later
 +
            (new_x, new_y) = new_room.center()
 +
           
 +
            if num_rooms == 0:
 +
                #this is the first room, where the player starts at
 +
                player.x = new_x
 +
                player.y = new_y
 +
            else:
 +
                #all rooms after the first:
 +
                #connect it to the previous room with a tunnel
 +
               
 +
                #center coordinates of previous room
 +
                (prev_x, prev_y) = rooms[num_rooms-1].center()
 +
               
 +
                #draw a coin (random number that is either 0 or 1)
 +
                if libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, 1) == 1:
 +
                    #first move horizontally, then vertically
 +
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, prev_y)
 +
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, new_x)
 +
                else:
 +
                    #first move vertically, then horizontally
 +
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, prev_x)
 +
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, new_y)
 +
           
 +
            #finally, append the new room to the list
 +
            rooms.append(new_room)
 +
            num_rooms += 1
 +
 +
 +
def render_all():
 +
    global fov_map, color_dark_wall, color_light_wall
 +
    global color_dark_ground, color_light_ground
 +
    global fov_recompute
 +
 +
    #draw all objects in the list
 +
    for object in objects:
 +
        object.draw()
 +
   
 +
    if fov_recompute:
 +
        #recompute FOV if needed (the player moved or something)
 +
        fov_recompute = False
 +
        libtcod.map_compute_fov(fov_map, player.x, player.y, TORCH_RADIUS, FOV_LIGHT_WALLS, FOV_ALGO)
 +
 +
        #go through all tiles, and set their background color according to the FOV
 +
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
 +
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
 +
                visible = libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, x, y)
 +
                wall = map[x][y].block_sight
 +
                if not visible:
 +
                    #if it's not visible right now, the player can only see it if it's explored
 +
                    if map[x][y].explored:
 +
                        if wall:
 +
                            libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_dark_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
 +
                        else:
 +
                            libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_dark_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
 +
                else:
 +
                    #it's visible
 +
                    if wall:
 +
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_light_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
 +
                    else:
 +
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_light_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
 +
                    #since it's visible, explore it
 +
                    map[x][y].explored = True
 
      
 
      
 
def handle_keys():
 
def handle_keys():

Revision as of 07:39, 27 December 2009

This is part of the code for a series of tutorials; the main page can be found here.

Contents

The Map

import libtcodpy as libtcod

#actual size of the window
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50

#size of the map
MAP_WIDTH = 80
MAP_HEIGHT = 45

LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum


color_dark_wall = libtcod.Color(0, 0, 100)
color_dark_ground = libtcod.Color(50, 50, 150)


class Tile:
    #a tile of the map and its properties
    def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight = None):
        self.blocked = blocked
        
        #by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
        if block_sight is None: block_sight = blocked
        self.block_sight = block_sight

class Object:
    #this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
    #it's always represented by a character on screen.
    def __init__(self, x, y, char, color):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y
        self.char = char
        self.color = color
    
    def move(self, dx, dy):
        #move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
        if not map[self.x + dx][self.y + dy].blocked:
            self.x += dx
            self.y += dy
    
    def draw(self):
        #set the color and then draw the character that represents this object at its position
        libtcod.console_set_foreground_color(0, self.color)
        libtcod.console_put_char(0, self.x, self.y, self.char, libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
    
    def clear(self):
        #erase the character that represents this object
        libtcod.console_put_char(0, self.x, self.y, ' ', libtcod.BKGND_NONE)



def make_map():
    global map
    
    #fill map with "unblocked" tiles
    map = [[ Tile(False)
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]
    
    #place two pillars to test the map
    map[30][22].blocked = True
    map[30][22].block_sight = True
    map[50][22].blocked = True
    map[50][22].block_sight = True


def render_all():
    global color_light_wall
    global color_light_ground

    #draw all objects in the list
    for object in objects:
        object.draw()
    
    #go through all tiles, and set their background color
    for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
        for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
            wall = map[x][y].block_sight
            if wall:
                libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_dark_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
            else:
                libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_dark_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
    
def handle_keys():
    key = libtcod.console_check_for_keypress()  #real-time
    #key = libtcod.console_wait_for_keypress(True)  #turn-based
    
    if key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ENTER and key.lalt:
        #Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
        libtcod.console_set_fullscreen(not libtcod.console_is_fullscreen())
        
    elif key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ESCAPE:
        return True  #exit game
    
    #movement keys
    if libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_UP):
        player.move(0, -1)
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_DOWN):
        player.move(0, 1)
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_LEFT):
        player.move(-1, 0)
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_RIGHT):
        player.move(1, 0)


#############################################
# Initialization & Main Loop
#############################################

libtcod.console_set_custom_font('arial10x10.png', libtcod.FONT_TYPE_GREYSCALE | libtcod.FONT_LAYOUT_TCOD)
libtcod.console_init_root(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 'python/libtcod tutorial', False)
libtcod.sys_set_fps(LIMIT_FPS)

#create object representing the player
player = Object(SCREEN_WIDTH/2, SCREEN_HEIGHT/2, '@', libtcod.white)

#create an NPC
npc = Object(SCREEN_WIDTH/2 - 5, SCREEN_HEIGHT/2, '@', libtcod.yellow)

#the list of objects with those two
objects = [npc, player]

#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
make_map()


#first_time = True  #for turn-based games

while not libtcod.console_is_window_closed():

    #erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
    for object in objects:
        object.clear()
    
    #handle keys and exit game if needed
    #if not first_time:  #for turn-based games
    exit = handle_keys()
    if exit:
        break
    #first_time = False  #for turn-based games
    
    #render the screen
    render_all()
    
    libtcod.console_flush()


Field of View (FOV)

import libtcodpy as libtcod

#actual size of the window
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50

#size of the map
MAP_WIDTH = 80
MAP_HEIGHT = 45


FOV_ALGO = 0  #default FOV algorithm
FOV_LIGHT_WALLS = True  #light walls or not
TORCH_RADIUS = 10

LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum


color_dark_wall = libtcod.Color(0, 0, 100)
color_light_wall = libtcod.Color(130, 110, 50)
color_dark_ground = libtcod.Color(50, 50, 150)
color_light_ground = libtcod.Color(200, 180, 50)


class Tile:
    #a tile of the map and its properties
    def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight = None):
        self.blocked = blocked
        
        #by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
        if block_sight is None: block_sight = blocked
        self.block_sight = block_sight

class Object:
    #this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
    #it's always represented by a character on screen.
    def __init__(self, x, y, char, color):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y
        self.char = char
        self.color = color
    
    def move(self, dx, dy):
        #move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
        if not map[self.x + dx][self.y + dy].blocked:
            self.x += dx
            self.y += dy
    
    def draw(self):
        #only show if it's visible to the player
        if libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, self.x, self.y):
            #set the color and then draw the character that represents this object at its position
            libtcod.console_set_foreground_color(0, self.color)
            libtcod.console_put_char(0, self.x, self.y, self.char, libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
    
    def clear(self):
        #erase the character that represents this object
        libtcod.console_put_char(0, self.x, self.y, ' ', libtcod.BKGND_NONE)



def make_map():
    global map
    
    #fill map with "unblocked" tiles
    map = [[ Tile(False)
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]
    
    #place two pillars to test the map
    map[30][22].blocked = True
    map[30][22].block_sight = True
    map[50][22].blocked = True
    map[50][22].block_sight = True


def render_all():
    global fov_map, color_dark_wall, color_light_wall
    global color_dark_ground, color_light_ground
    global fov_recompute

    #draw all objects in the list
    for object in objects:
        object.draw()
    
    if fov_recompute:
        #recompute FOV if needed (the player moved or something)
        fov_recompute = False
        libtcod.map_compute_fov(fov_map, player.x, player.y, TORCH_RADIUS, FOV_LIGHT_WALLS, FOV_ALGO)

        #go through all tiles, and set their background color according to the FOV
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
                visible = libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, x, y)
                wall = map[x][y].block_sight
                if not visible:
                    #it's out of the player's FOV
                    if wall:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_dark_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
                    else:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_dark_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
                else:
                    #it's visible
                    if wall:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_light_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
                    else:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_light_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
    
def handle_keys():
    global fov_recompute
    
    key = libtcod.console_check_for_keypress()  #real-time
    #key = libtcod.console_wait_for_keypress(True)  #turn-based
    
    if key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ENTER and key.lalt:
        #Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
        libtcod.console_set_fullscreen(not libtcod.console_is_fullscreen())
        
    elif key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ESCAPE:
        return True  #exit game
    
    #movement keys
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_UP):
        player.move(0, -1)
        fov_recompute = True
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_DOWN):
        player.move(0, 1)
        fov_recompute = True
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_LEFT):
        player.move(-1, 0)
        fov_recompute = True
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_RIGHT):
        player.move(1, 0)
        fov_recompute = True


#############################################
# Initialization & Main Loop
#############################################

libtcod.console_set_custom_font('arial10x10.png', libtcod.FONT_TYPE_GREYSCALE | libtcod.FONT_LAYOUT_TCOD)
libtcod.console_init_root(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 'python/libtcod tutorial', False)
libtcod.sys_set_fps(LIMIT_FPS)

#create object representing the player
player = Object(SCREEN_WIDTH/2, SCREEN_HEIGHT/2, '@', libtcod.white)

#create an NPC
npc = Object(SCREEN_WIDTH/2 - 5, SCREEN_HEIGHT/2, '@', libtcod.yellow)

#the list of objects with those two
objects = [npc, player]

#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
make_map()

#create the FOV map, according to the generated map
fov_map = libtcod.map_new(MAP_WIDTH, MAP_HEIGHT)
for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
    for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
        libtcod.map_set_properties(fov_map, x, y, not map[x][y].blocked, not map[x][y].block_sight)


fov_recompute = True
#first_time = True  #for turn-based games

while not libtcod.console_is_window_closed():

    #erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
    for object in objects:
        object.clear()
    
    #handle keys and exit game if needed
    #if not first_time:  #for turn-based games
    exit = handle_keys()
    if exit:
        break
    #first_time = False  #for turn-based games
    
    #render the screen
    render_all()
    
    libtcod.console_flush()


Dungeon building blocks


import libtcodpy as libtcod

#actual size of the window
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50

#size of the map
MAP_WIDTH = 80
MAP_HEIGHT = 45


FOV_ALGO = 0  #default FOV algorithm
FOV_LIGHT_WALLS = True  #light walls or not
TORCH_RADIUS = 10

LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum


color_dark_wall = libtcod.Color(0, 0, 100)
color_light_wall = libtcod.Color(130, 110, 50)
color_dark_ground = libtcod.Color(50, 50, 150)
color_light_ground = libtcod.Color(200, 180, 50)


class Tile:
    #a tile of the map and its properties
    def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight = None):
        self.blocked = blocked
        
        #by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
        if block_sight is None: block_sight = blocked
        self.block_sight = block_sight

class Rect:
    #a rectangle on the map. used to characterize a room.
    def __init__(self, x, y, w, h):
        self.x1 = x
        self.y1 = y
        self.x2 = x + w
        self.y2 = y + h

class Object:
    #this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
    #it's always represented by a character on screen.
    def __init__(self, x, y, char, color):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y
        self.char = char
        self.color = color
    
    def move(self, dx, dy):
        #move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
        if not map[self.x + dx][self.y + dy].blocked:
            self.x += dx
            self.y += dy
    
    def draw(self):
        #only show if it's visible to the player
        if libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, self.x, self.y):
            #set the color and then draw the character that represents this object at its position
            libtcod.console_set_foreground_color(0, self.color)
            libtcod.console_put_char(0, self.x, self.y, self.char, libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
    
    def clear(self):
        #erase the character that represents this object
        libtcod.console_put_char(0, self.x, self.y, ' ', libtcod.BKGND_NONE)



def create_room(room):
    global map
    #go through the tiles in the rectangle and make them passable
    for x in range(room.x1 + 1, room.x2):
        for y in range(room.y1 + 1, room.y2):
            map[x][y].blocked = False
            map[x][y].block_sight = False

def create_h_tunnel(x1, x2, y):
    global map
    #horizontal tunnel. min() and max() are used in case x1>x2
    for x in range(min(x1, x2), max(x1, x2) + 1):
        map[x][y].blocked = False
        map[x][y].block_sight = False

def create_v_tunnel(y1, y2, x):
    global map
    #vertical tunnel
    for y in range(min(y1, y2), max(y1, y2) + 1):
        map[x][y].blocked = False
        map[x][y].block_sight = False

def make_map():
    global map
    
    #fill map with "blocked" tiles
    map = [[ Tile(True)
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]
    
    #create two rooms
    room1 = Rect(20, 15, 10, 15)
    room2 = Rect(50, 15, 10, 15)
    create_room(room1)
    create_room(room2)
    
    #connect them with a tunnel
    create_h_tunnel(25, 55, 23)
    
    #place the player inside the first room
    player.x = 25
    player.y = 23


def render_all():
    global fov_map, color_dark_wall, color_light_wall
    global color_dark_ground, color_light_ground
    global fov_recompute

    #draw all objects in the list
    for object in objects:
        object.draw()
    
    if fov_recompute:
        #recompute FOV if needed (the player moved or something)
        fov_recompute = False
        libtcod.map_compute_fov(fov_map, player.x, player.y, TORCH_RADIUS, FOV_LIGHT_WALLS, FOV_ALGO)

        #go through all tiles, and set their background color according to the FOV
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
                visible = libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, x, y)
                wall = map[x][y].block_sight
                if not visible:
                    #it's out of the player's FOV
                    if wall:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_dark_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
                    else:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_dark_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
                else:
                    #it's visible
                    if wall:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_light_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
                    else:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_light_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
    
def handle_keys():
    global fov_recompute
    
    key = libtcod.console_check_for_keypress()  #real-time
    #key = libtcod.console_wait_for_keypress(True)  #turn-based
    
    if key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ENTER and key.lalt:
        #Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
        libtcod.console_set_fullscreen(not libtcod.console_is_fullscreen())
        
    elif key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ESCAPE:
        return True  #exit game
    
    #movement keys
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_UP):
        player.move(0, -1)
        fov_recompute = True
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_DOWN):
        player.move(0, 1)
        fov_recompute = True
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_LEFT):
        player.move(-1, 0)
        fov_recompute = True
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_RIGHT):
        player.move(1, 0)
        fov_recompute = True


#############################################
# Initialization & Main Loop
#############################################

libtcod.console_set_custom_font('arial10x10.png', libtcod.FONT_TYPE_GREYSCALE | libtcod.FONT_LAYOUT_TCOD)
libtcod.console_init_root(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 'python/libtcod tutorial', False)
libtcod.sys_set_fps(LIMIT_FPS)

#create object representing the player
player = Object(SCREEN_WIDTH/2, SCREEN_HEIGHT/2, '@', libtcod.white)

#create an NPC
npc = Object(SCREEN_WIDTH/2 - 5, SCREEN_HEIGHT/2, '@', libtcod.yellow)

#the list of objects with those two
objects = [npc, player]

#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
make_map()

#create the FOV map, according to the generated map
fov_map = libtcod.map_new(MAP_WIDTH, MAP_HEIGHT)
for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
    for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
        libtcod.map_set_properties(fov_map, x, y, not map[x][y].blocked, not map[x][y].block_sight)


fov_recompute = True
#first_time = True  #for turn-based games

while not libtcod.console_is_window_closed():

    #erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
    for object in objects:
        object.clear()
    
    #handle keys and exit game if needed
    #if not first_time:  #for turn-based games
    exit = handle_keys()
    if exit:
        break
    #first_time = False  #for turn-based games
    
    #render the screen
    render_all()
    
    libtcod.console_flush()


Dungeon generator


import libtcodpy as libtcod

#actual size of the window
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50

#size of the map
MAP_WIDTH = 80
MAP_HEIGHT = 45

#parameters for dungeon generator
ROOM_MAX_SIZE = 10
ROOM_MIN_SIZE = 6
MAX_ROOMS = 30


FOV_ALGO = 0  #default FOV algorithm
FOV_LIGHT_WALLS = True  #light walls or not
TORCH_RADIUS = 10

LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum


color_dark_wall = libtcod.Color(0, 0, 100)
color_light_wall = libtcod.Color(130, 110, 50)
color_dark_ground = libtcod.Color(50, 50, 150)
color_light_ground = libtcod.Color(200, 180, 50)


class Tile:
    #a tile of the map and its properties
    def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight = None):
        self.blocked = blocked
        
        #by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
        if block_sight is None: block_sight = blocked
        self.block_sight = block_sight

class Rect:
    #a rectangle on the map. used to characterize a room.
    def __init__(self, x, y, w, h):
        self.x1 = x
        self.y1 = y
        self.x2 = x + w
        self.y2 = y + h
    
    def center(self):
        center_x = (self.x1 + self.x2) / 2
        center_y = (self.y1 + self.y2) / 2
        return (center_x, center_y)
    
    def intersect(self, other):
        #returns true if this rectangle intersects with another one
        return (self.x1 <= other.x2 and self.x2 >= other.x1 and
                self.y1 <= other.y2 and self.y2 >= other.y1)

class Object:
    #this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
    #it's always represented by a character on screen.
    def __init__(self, x, y, char, color):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y
        self.char = char
        self.color = color
    
    def move(self, dx, dy):
        #move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
        if not map[self.x + dx][self.y + dy].blocked:
            self.x += dx
            self.y += dy
    
    def draw(self):
        #only show if it's visible to the player
        if libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, self.x, self.y):
            #set the color and then draw the character that represents this object at its position
            libtcod.console_set_foreground_color(0, self.color)
            libtcod.console_put_char(0, self.x, self.y, self.char, libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
    
    def clear(self):
        #erase the character that represents this object
        libtcod.console_put_char(0, self.x, self.y, ' ', libtcod.BKGND_NONE)



def create_room(room):
    global map
    #go through the tiles in the rectangle and make them passable
    for x in range(room.x1 + 1, room.x2):
        for y in range(room.y1 + 1, room.y2):
            map[x][y].blocked = False
            map[x][y].block_sight = False

def create_h_tunnel(x1, x2, y):
    global map
    #horizontal tunnel. min() and max() are used in case x1>x2
    for x in range(min(x1, x2), max(x1, x2) + 1):
        map[x][y].blocked = False
        map[x][y].block_sight = False

def create_v_tunnel(y1, y2, x):
    global map
    #vertical tunnel
    for y in range(min(y1, y2), max(y1, y2) + 1):
        map[x][y].blocked = False
        map[x][y].block_sight = False

def make_map():
    global map, player
    
    #fill map with "blocked" tiles
    map = [[ Tile(True)
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]

    rooms = []
    num_rooms = 0
    
    for r in range(MAX_ROOMS):
        #random width and height
        w = libtcod.random_get_int(0, ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
        h = libtcod.random_get_int(0, ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
        #random position without going out of the boundaries of the map
        x = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAP_WIDTH - w - 1)
        y = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAP_HEIGHT - h - 1)
        
        #"Rect" class makes rectangles easier to work with
        new_room = Rect(x, y, w, h)
        
        #run through the other rooms and see if they intersect with this one
        failed = False
        for other_room in rooms:
            if new_room.intersect(other_room):
                failed = True
                break
        
        if not failed:
            #this means there are no intersections, so this room is valid
            
            #"paint" it to the map's tiles
            create_room(new_room)
            
            #center coordinates of new room, will be useful later
            (new_x, new_y) = new_room.center()
            
            if num_rooms == 0:
                #this is the first room, where the player starts at
                player.x = new_x
                player.y = new_y
            else:
                #all rooms after the first:
                #connect it to the previous room with a tunnel
                
                #center coordinates of previous room
                (prev_x, prev_y) = rooms[num_rooms-1].center()
                
                #draw a coin (random number that is either 0 or 1)
                if libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, 1) == 1:
                    #first move horizontally, then vertically
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, prev_y)
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, new_x)
                else:
                    #first move vertically, then horizontally
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, prev_x)
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, new_y)
            
            #finally, append the new room to the list
            rooms.append(new_room)
            num_rooms += 1


def render_all():
    global fov_map, color_dark_wall, color_light_wall
    global color_dark_ground, color_light_ground
    global fov_recompute

    #draw all objects in the list
    for object in objects:
        object.draw()
    
    if fov_recompute:
        #recompute FOV if needed (the player moved or something)
        fov_recompute = False
        libtcod.map_compute_fov(fov_map, player.x, player.y, TORCH_RADIUS, FOV_LIGHT_WALLS, FOV_ALGO)

        #go through all tiles, and set their background color according to the FOV
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
                visible = libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, x, y)
                wall = map[x][y].block_sight
                if not visible:
                    #it's out of the player's FOV
                    if wall:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_dark_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
                    else:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_dark_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
                else:
                    #it's visible
                    if wall:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_light_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
                    else:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_light_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
    
def handle_keys():
    global fov_recompute
    
    key = libtcod.console_check_for_keypress()  #real-time
    #key = libtcod.console_wait_for_keypress(True)  #turn-based
    
    if key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ENTER and key.lalt:
        #Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
        libtcod.console_set_fullscreen(not libtcod.console_is_fullscreen())
        
    elif key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ESCAPE:
        return True  #exit game
    
    #movement keys
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_UP):
        player.move(0, -1)
        fov_recompute = True
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_DOWN):
        player.move(0, 1)
        fov_recompute = True
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_LEFT):
        player.move(-1, 0)
        fov_recompute = True
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_RIGHT):
        player.move(1, 0)
        fov_recompute = True


#############################################
# Initialization & Main Loop
#############################################

libtcod.console_set_custom_font('arial10x10.png', libtcod.FONT_TYPE_GREYSCALE | libtcod.FONT_LAYOUT_TCOD)
libtcod.console_init_root(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 'python/libtcod tutorial', False)
libtcod.sys_set_fps(LIMIT_FPS)

#create object representing the player
player = Object(SCREEN_WIDTH/2, SCREEN_HEIGHT/2, '@', libtcod.white)

#create an NPC
npc = Object(SCREEN_WIDTH/2 - 5, SCREEN_HEIGHT/2, '@', libtcod.yellow)

#the list of objects with those two
objects = [npc, player]

#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
make_map()

#create the FOV map, according to the generated map
fov_map = libtcod.map_new(MAP_WIDTH, MAP_HEIGHT)
for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
    for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
        libtcod.map_set_properties(fov_map, x, y, not map[x][y].blocked, not map[x][y].block_sight)


fov_recompute = True
#first_time = True  #for turn-based games

while not libtcod.console_is_window_closed():

    #erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
    for object in objects:
        object.clear()
    
    #handle keys and exit game if needed
    #if not first_time:  #for turn-based games
    exit = handle_keys()
    if exit:
        break
    #first_time = False  #for turn-based games
    
    #render the screen
    render_all()
    
    libtcod.console_flush()


Exploration


import libtcodpy as libtcod

#actual size of the window
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50

#size of the map
MAP_WIDTH = 80
MAP_HEIGHT = 45

#parameters for dungeon generator
ROOM_MAX_SIZE = 10
ROOM_MIN_SIZE = 6
MAX_ROOMS = 30


FOV_ALGO = 0  #default FOV algorithm
FOV_LIGHT_WALLS = True  #light walls or not
TORCH_RADIUS = 10

LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum


color_dark_wall = libtcod.Color(0, 0, 100)
color_light_wall = libtcod.Color(130, 110, 50)
color_dark_ground = libtcod.Color(50, 50, 150)
color_light_ground = libtcod.Color(200, 180, 50)


class Tile:
    #a tile of the map and its properties
    def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight = None):
        self.blocked = blocked
        
        #all tiles start unexplored
        self.explored = False
        
        #by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
        if block_sight is None: block_sight = blocked
        self.block_sight = block_sight

class Rect:
    #a rectangle on the map. used to characterize a room.
    def __init__(self, x, y, w, h):
        self.x1 = x
        self.y1 = y
        self.x2 = x + w
        self.y2 = y + h
    
    def center(self):
        center_x = (self.x1 + self.x2) / 2
        center_y = (self.y1 + self.y2) / 2
        return (center_x, center_y)
    
    def intersect(self, other):
        #returns true if this rectangle intersects with another one
        return (self.x1 <= other.x2 and self.x2 >= other.x1 and
                self.y1 <= other.y2 and self.y2 >= other.y1)

class Object:
    #this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
    #it's always represented by a character on screen.
    def __init__(self, x, y, char, color):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y
        self.char = char
        self.color = color
    
    def move(self, dx, dy):
        #move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
        if not map[self.x + dx][self.y + dy].blocked:
            self.x += dx
            self.y += dy
    
    def draw(self):
        #only show if it's visible to the player
        if libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, self.x, self.y):
            #set the color and then draw the character that represents this object at its position
            libtcod.console_set_foreground_color(0, self.color)
            libtcod.console_put_char(0, self.x, self.y, self.char, libtcod.BKGND_NONE)
    
    def clear(self):
        #erase the character that represents this object
        libtcod.console_put_char(0, self.x, self.y, ' ', libtcod.BKGND_NONE)



def create_room(room):
    global map
    #go through the tiles in the rectangle and make them passable
    for x in range(room.x1 + 1, room.x2):
        for y in range(room.y1 + 1, room.y2):
            map[x][y].blocked = False
            map[x][y].block_sight = False

def create_h_tunnel(x1, x2, y):
    global map
    #horizontal tunnel. min() and max() are used in case x1>x2
    for x in range(min(x1, x2), max(x1, x2) + 1):
        map[x][y].blocked = False
        map[x][y].block_sight = False

def create_v_tunnel(y1, y2, x):
    global map
    #vertical tunnel
    for y in range(min(y1, y2), max(y1, y2) + 1):
        map[x][y].blocked = False
        map[x][y].block_sight = False

def make_map():
    global map, player
    
    #fill map with "blocked" tiles
    map = [[ Tile(True)
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]

    rooms = []
    num_rooms = 0
    
    for r in range(MAX_ROOMS):
        #random width and height
        w = libtcod.random_get_int(0, ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
        h = libtcod.random_get_int(0, ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
        #random position without going out of the boundaries of the map
        x = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAP_WIDTH - w - 1)
        y = libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, MAP_HEIGHT - h - 1)
        
        #"Rect" class makes rectangles easier to work with
        new_room = Rect(x, y, w, h)
        
        #run through the other rooms and see if they intersect with this one
        failed = False
        for other_room in rooms:
            if new_room.intersect(other_room):
                failed = True
                break
        
        if not failed:
            #this means there are no intersections, so this room is valid
            
            #"paint" it to the map's tiles
            create_room(new_room)
            
            #center coordinates of new room, will be useful later
            (new_x, new_y) = new_room.center()
            
            if num_rooms == 0:
                #this is the first room, where the player starts at
                player.x = new_x
                player.y = new_y
            else:
                #all rooms after the first:
                #connect it to the previous room with a tunnel
                
                #center coordinates of previous room
                (prev_x, prev_y) = rooms[num_rooms-1].center()
                
                #draw a coin (random number that is either 0 or 1)
                if libtcod.random_get_int(0, 0, 1) == 1:
                    #first move horizontally, then vertically
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, prev_y)
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, new_x)
                else:
                    #first move vertically, then horizontally
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, prev_x)
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, new_y)
            
            #finally, append the new room to the list
            rooms.append(new_room)
            num_rooms += 1


def render_all():
    global fov_map, color_dark_wall, color_light_wall
    global color_dark_ground, color_light_ground
    global fov_recompute

    #draw all objects in the list
    for object in objects:
        object.draw()
    
    if fov_recompute:
        #recompute FOV if needed (the player moved or something)
        fov_recompute = False
        libtcod.map_compute_fov(fov_map, player.x, player.y, TORCH_RADIUS, FOV_LIGHT_WALLS, FOV_ALGO)

        #go through all tiles, and set their background color according to the FOV
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
                visible = libtcod.map_is_in_fov(fov_map, x, y)
                wall = map[x][y].block_sight
                if not visible:
                    #if it's not visible right now, the player can only see it if it's explored
                    if map[x][y].explored:
                        if wall:
                            libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_dark_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
                        else:
                            libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_dark_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET)
                else:
                    #it's visible
                    if wall:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_light_wall, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
                    else:
                        libtcod.console_set_back(0, x, y, color_light_ground, libtcod.BKGND_SET )
                    #since it's visible, explore it
                    map[x][y].explored = True
    
def handle_keys():
    global fov_recompute
    
    key = libtcod.console_check_for_keypress()  #real-time
    #key = libtcod.console_wait_for_keypress(True)  #turn-based
    
    if key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ENTER and key.lalt:
        #Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
        libtcod.console_set_fullscreen(not libtcod.console_is_fullscreen())
        
    elif key.vk == libtcod.KEY_ESCAPE:
        return True  #exit game
    
    #movement keys
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_UP):
        player.move(0, -1)
        fov_recompute = True
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_DOWN):
        player.move(0, 1)
        fov_recompute = True
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_LEFT):
        player.move(-1, 0)
        fov_recompute = True
        
    elif libtcod.console_is_key_pressed(libtcod.KEY_RIGHT):
        player.move(1, 0)
        fov_recompute = True


#############################################
# Initialization & Main Loop
#############################################

libtcod.console_set_custom_font('arial10x10.png', libtcod.FONT_TYPE_GREYSCALE | libtcod.FONT_LAYOUT_TCOD)
libtcod.console_init_root(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 'python/libtcod tutorial', False)
libtcod.sys_set_fps(LIMIT_FPS)

#create object representing the player
player = Object(SCREEN_WIDTH/2, SCREEN_HEIGHT/2, '@', libtcod.white)

#create an NPC
npc = Object(SCREEN_WIDTH/2 - 5, SCREEN_HEIGHT/2, '@', libtcod.yellow)

#the list of objects with those two
objects = [npc, player]

#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
make_map()

#create the FOV map, according to the generated map
fov_map = libtcod.map_new(MAP_WIDTH, MAP_HEIGHT)
for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
    for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
        libtcod.map_set_properties(fov_map, x, y, not map[x][y].blocked, not map[x][y].block_sight)


fov_recompute = True
#first_time = True  #for turn-based games

while not libtcod.console_is_window_closed():

    #erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
    for object in objects:
        object.clear()
    
    #handle keys and exit game if needed
    #if not first_time:  #for turn-based games
    exit = handle_keys()
    if exit:
        break
    #first_time = False  #for turn-based games
    
    #render the screen
    render_all()
    
    libtcod.console_flush()
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